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Old Dominion University

2014-2015 Catalog

Political Science and Geography

Francis Adams, Chair

The Department of Political Science and Geography offers undergraduate degrees in political science and geography.

In political science, the department offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. The political science program is designed to give students an essential core of basic knowledge and analytical skills, while providing an opportunity to specialize in one of two emphasis areas: American politics and public law, or international relations and comparative politics.

In geography the department offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. The geography program is designed to give students a broad base of geographical training and an understanding of human-environment interrelationships, while providing an opportunity to specialize in one of three concentration areas: urban planning and emergency/hazards management, environment and resources, and geographical information systems (B.S. only). Undergraduate and graduate certificates in geographic information science and in spatial analysis of coastal environments are also offered.

In addition to developing subject-area expertise, political science and geography courses are designed to build analytic and communication skills. Writing skills are emphasized throughout the curriculum. Undergraduates in most 400-level courses in political science and geography are required to make oral presentations in class. Instructors also strengthen students' verbal competency skills through in-class discussions. Students gain technical skills in lower and upper-level methods classes where computers are employed for data analysis and social science research.

Undergraduate students may earn honors in the major in political science or geography by fulfilling all the requirements for the specific degree (B.A. and B.S.) and meeting the honors requirements indicated below. The requirements for honors do not increase the credit hours necessary for the major.

Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts—Political Science Major

To be named, Chief Departmental Advisor

Lower Division General Education

Written Communication *6
Oral Communication3
Mathematics **3
Language and Culture ***0-12
Information Literacy and Research ****
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Literature3
Philosophy and Ethics3
The Nature of Science8
Impact of Technology3
Human Behavior +3
Principles of Macroeconomics
Total Hours38-50
*

 Grade of C or better required in both courses and in ENGL 110C before declaring major.

**

 BS requires C- or better in STAT 130M. STAT 130M is also recommended for the BA degree though MATH 102MMATH 103M or MATH 162M are also acceptable.

***

 BS students' competence must be at the 102 level. BA students must have competence through the 202 level. Competence is not met by the associate degree for BA students.

****

 Satisfied in the major with POLS 308.

+

 ECON 201S is a departmental requirement and is not met by the associate degree.

Foundation courses (B.A. 15 hours, B.S. 18 hours)

POLS 100SIntroduction to International Politics3
POLS 101SIntroduction to American Politics3
POLS 102SIntroduction to Comparative Government and Politics3
POLS 308Research Design (C- or better) *3
POLS 418Quantitative Methods (BS only)3
ECON 202SPrinciples of Microeconomics3
or GEOG 100S Cultural Geography
*

Meets information literacy and research requirement.

Political Science 300-400 level electives (B.A. 24 hours. B.S. 21 hours)

Both the B.A. and B.S. require that at least nine hours are at the 400 level. Both require a minimum of nine hours in each of two emphasis areas: American politics/public law and international relations/comparative politics. No more than three hours can be taken from POLS 367 and POLS 368 and no more than three hours can be taken from POLS 497. One elective must be writing intensive. All majors must complete and submit to the department a capstone paper in the junior or senior year.

POLS 300-400 electives9
POLS 300-400 level writing intensive (W) course *3
POLS 300-400 (BA only)3
POLS 400-level electives9
*

 C or better required.

 See course listings in this Catalog for elective choices.

Electives

Elective courses may be taken for the remainder of the minimum 120 credits required for the degree.

Upper Division General Education

  • Option A. Approved Minor, 12-24 hours; also second degree or second major.
  • Option B. Interdisciplinary Minor, 12 hours specified by the department, 3 of which may be in the major area of study.
  • Option C. International business and regional courses or an approved certification program, such as teaching licensure.
  • Option D. Two Upper-Division Courses from outside the College of Arts and Letters or from the Arts and Humanities Component within the College of Arts and Letters that are not required by the major (6 hours).

Graduation requirements include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 overall and in the major, 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours of upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University, completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, and completion of Senior Assessment.

Double Majoring in Philosophy and Political Science

The departments of Political Science and Geography and Philosophy and Religious Studies have established an arrangement that makes it possible to complete a double major in as few as 55 hours, little more than the 45-49 hours needed for a major in one and minor in the other. Political Science majors double-majoring in Philosophy (on the Political-Legal Studies track) will be allowed to count any two of the following Philosophy courses as Political Science electives:

PHIL 304Marx and the Marxists3
PHIL 410Social and Political Philosophy3
PHIL 411Postmodernism and Political Philosophy3
PHIL 412Philosophy of Law3

These courses will not count toward the requirement to take a specific number of hours in the American politics/public law and international relations/comparative politics emphasis areas. Philosophy "topics" courses and PHIL 442E may also be counted as Political Science electives when the topic covered is appropriate; prior approval is required from the chief departmental advisor of Political Science and Geography. Philosophy will also count certain Political Science courses towards its major for double majors; see the Philosophy section of this Catalog for details.

Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science—Geography Major

Jonathan Leib, Chief Departmental Advisor

Lower Division General Education

Written Communication *6
Oral Communication3
Mathematics **3
Language and Culture ***0-12
Information Literacy and Research ****
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Literature3
Philosophy and Ethics3
The Nature of Science *****8
Impact of Technology +0-3
Human Behavior ++3
Total Hours35-50
*

 Grade of C or better required in both courses and in ENGL 110C before declaring major.

**

 BS students must earn C- or better in STAT 130M.

***

 BS Students' competence must be at the 102 level. BA students must have competence through the 202 level. Competence is not met by the associate degree for BA students.

****

Satisfied in the major with GEOG 308.

*****

 OEAS 106N, OEAS 108NOEAS 111N, or OEAS 112N is recommended for one of the two nature of science courses. 

+

Can be met with GEOG 306T.

++

GEOG 100S and GEOG 101S cannot be used to satisfy this requirement.

Required Courses12-18
Cultural Geography
Environmental Geography
Maps and Geographic Information
Research Design *
Quantitative Methods **
Select one of the following: ***
Seminar in Geography
or
Coastal Geography
or
Latin America
or
Senior Seminar in International Studies
*

C- or better. Meets information literacy and research requirement.

**

BS only.  GEOG 402 and GEOG 404 may be substituted for GEOG 418.

***

 C or better required.

Geography 300-400 level electives (B.A. 21 hours, B.S, 18 hours)

At least nine credit hours must be taken at the 400 level. Those wishing to pursue a physical geography concentration may substitute the following ocean, earth and atmospheric science courses for up to 12 hours of Geography credit:

OEAS 306Oceanography3
OEAS 310Global Earth Systems3
OEAS 344WGeomorphology3
OEAS 412Global Environmental Change3
OEAS 443General Meteorology3
OEAS 448Population Ecology3

Three hours of internship count toward the 36 hours of geography courses. All majors must complete a capstone paper in the junior or senior year.

General Program

GEOG 300-400 electives (BA only)12
GEOG 300-400 electives (BS only)9
GEOG 400-level electives9

Urban Concentration

GEOG 310Geography of the City3
GEOG 410Seminar in Urban Geography3
GEOG 300-400 electives6
Select two of the following:6
Hazards: Natural and Technological
World Economic Geography
Internship in Geography
Geographic Information Systems
Urban and Regional Planning
Cities of the World
Total Hours18

Environment and Resources Concentration

GEOG 305World Resources3
GEOG 405Seminar in International Resource Management3
Select two of the following:6
Hazards: Natural and Technological
World Economic Geography
Internship in Geography
Marine Geography
Coastal Geography
Europe
Africa
Asia
Latin America
The Middle East
Approved Study Abroad options
Total Hours12

Geographic Information Systems Concentration (B.S. only)

GEOG 402Geographic Information Systems3
GEOG 404Digital Techniques for Remote Sensing3
Select two of the following: 6
Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments
Advanced GIS
Applied Cartography/GIS
Total Hours12

Electives: Elective courses may be taken for the remainder of the minimum 120 credits required for the degree.

Upper Division General Education

  • Option A. Approved Minor, 12-24 hours; also second degree or second major.
  • Option B. Interdisciplinary Minor, 12 hours specified by the department, 3 of which may be in the major area of study.
  • Option C. International business and regional courses or an approved certification program, such as teaching licensure.
  • Option D. Two Upper-Division Courses from outside the College of Arts and Letters or from the Arts and Humanities Component within the College of Arts and Letters that are not required by the major (6 hours).

Requirements for graduation include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 overall and in the major, 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours of upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University, completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, and completion of Senior Assessment.

Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science with Honors–Political Science Major

The requirements are as follows:

  1. Attain an overall grade point average of 3.25.
  2. Attain a grade point average in the major of 3.50.
  3. Earn honors in nine hours of courses in the major at the 300/400 level, excluding internship and independent study courses, with no more than six hours taken from the same instructor.

Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science with Honors–Geography Major

The requirements are as follows:

  1. Attain an overall grade point average of 3.25.
  2. Attain a grade point average in the major of 3.50.
  3. Earn honors in nine hours of courses in the major at the 300/400 level, excluding internship and independent study courses, with no more than six hours taken from the same instructor.

Minors in Political Science

One general minor and a minor with a specialization in public law are offered in political science. Each requires a specified introductory course as a prerequisite and 12 hours of 300/400-level courses. For completion of a minor, a student must have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all courses required for the minor exclusive of lower-level courses and prerequisite courses and complete a minimum of six hours in upper-level courses in the minor requirement through courses offered by Old Dominion University. No more than a total of three credit hours will be counted toward the political science minor from POLS 367POLS 368 and POLS 497.

  1. Political Science. POLS 100S, POLS 101S or POLS 102S is a prerequisite for the minor and is not included in the calculation of the grade point average for the minor. The minor requires 12 hours of 300/400-level political science electives.
  2. Public Law. POLS 101S is a prerequisite for the minor and is not included in the calculation of the grade point average for the minor. The minor requires 12 hours from the following:
Select four of the following:12
Introduction to Public Law
Judicial Process and Behavior
Constitutional Criminal Procedure
First Amendment Freedoms
American Constitutional Law and Politics I
American Constitutional Law and Politics II
Jurisprudence
International Law
Public law topics courses such as:
Topics in Political Science
Total Hours12

 

Minors in Geography

One general minor and a minor with a specialization in environment and resources are offered in geography. Each requires an introductory course as a prerequisite and 12 hours of 300/400-level courses. For completion of a minor, a student must have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all courses required for the minor exclusive of lower-level courses and prerequisite courses and complete a minimum of six hours in upper-level courses in the minor requirement through courses offered by Old Dominion University.

  1. Geography. GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S is a prerequisite for the minor and is not included in the calculation of the grade point average for the minor. The minor requires 12 hours of 300/400-level geography electives.
  2. Environment and Resources. GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S is a prerequisite for the minor and is not included in the calculation of the grade point average for the minor. Requirements for the minor are:
GEOG 305World Resources3
GEOG 405Seminar in International Resource Management3
Select two of the following courses:6
Hazards: Natural and Technological
Marine Geography
Coastal Geography
Total Hours12

Advanced Placement

Students interested in advanced placement credit should confer with the department chair.

Certificate in Geographic Information Science

The certificate in geographic information science (GISci) provides a program for students and professionals pursuing careers in geographic information systems (GIS) and related spatial technologies (remote sensing, global positioning systems, cartography, and spatial data handling and analysis). Awarded upon completion of the requirements, the certificate is an affidavit of academic proficiency and is administered by the Department of Political Science and Geography. Students must take courses in the areas listed below and complete them with a cumulative GPA of 3.00 or higher and no grade below a C (2.00). The certificate is available to undergraduate students and non-degree seeking professionals who meet the requirements. Students with comparable professional experience may be able to satisfy competencies in selected courses through examination.

Students must complete the following courses:

Core Courses
GEOG 300Maps and Geographic Information3
GEOG 402Geographic Information Systems3
GEOG 404Digital Techniques for Remote Sensing3
Developmental Courses
Select three of the following: 9
Field Methods
Internship in Geography
Seminar in Geography
Cartography
Urban and Regional Planning
Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments
Internet Geographic Information Systems
Advanced GIS
Applied Cartography/GIS
Topics in Geography
Independent Research in Geography
Total Hours18

Certificate in Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments

The certificate in spatial analysis of coastal environments provides an interdisciplinary program for students wishing to pursue careers in coastal management or research, remote sensing, or geographic information systems (GIS) applications. Rendered upon completion of the requirements, the certificate is an academic affidavit comprised of courses in geography and ocean, earth and atmospheric sciences and is administered by the two departments. Students must take courses in the areas listed below and complete them with a cumulative GPA of 3.00 or higher and no grade below a C (2.00). The certificate is available to postgraduate professionals who meet the requirements. Students with comparable professional experience may be able to show competence in selected courses through examination.

Students seeking graduate certification should refer to the Graduate Catalog.

Undergraduate Certification

Core Courses
GEOG 404Digital Techniques for Remote Sensing3
Select one of the following:3
Wetland Plants
Principles of Plant Ecology
Structural Geology
Concepts in Oceanography for Teachers
Interpretive Analysis Courses
Select two of the following:6
Geographic Information Systems
Coastal Geography
Applied Cartography/GIS
Special Topics
Capstone Seminar
Select one of the following:3
Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments
Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments
Total Hours15

GEOGRAPHY Courses

GEOG 100S. Cultural Geography. 3 Credits.

This course provides a basic topical introduction to human and cultural geography. It focuses on the diversity of human societies, their distribution, characteristics, and cultural impact on the landscape. Topics include the geography of population, migration, language, religion, economic development, urbanization, resources, and the political landscape.

GEOG 101S. Environmental Geography. 3 Credits.

A geographical study of the diverse characteristics of the Earth's physical landscape, spatial distribution of environmental characteristics, the impacts of these on human populations and human populations' impact on the natural environment. Topics include climate and climate change, mass movements and natural hazards, biogeography and environmental problems such as desertification and deforestation, and the use and abuse of water resources.

GEOG 126S. Honors: Cultural Geography. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special honors section of GEOG 100S.

GEOG 250. World Regional Geography. 3 Credits.

A study of the physical and cultural characteristics of the major geographical regions of the world. The course focuses upon significant problems within each of the world's major regions and examines the relevance of the geographical background to these problems.

GEOG 295. Topics in Geography. 3 Credits.

A study of selective topics in Geography.

GEOG 296. Topics in Geography. 3 Credits.

A study of selective topics in Geography.

GEOG 300. Maps and Geographic Information. 3 Credits.

An investigation of different representations of the Earth: physical and cognitive maps, atlases, spatial databases, aerial photographs, and remote sensing imagery, with an emphasis on the use of geographic tools for communicating and analyzing information. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S.

GEOG 305. World Resources. 3 Credits.

A geographical analysis of the distribution and accessibility of the world's resources including population, agricultural land, biodiversity, water, renewable and nonrenewable materials, and energy sources. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 306T. Hazards: Natural and Technological. 3 Credits.

An exploration of human perceptions of and responses to extreme geophysical and technological threats, including nuclear bombs and accidents, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and volcanoes. Prerequisites: junior standing and six credits in the social sciences or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 308. Research Design. 3 Credits.

Covers the design and implementation of quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry in social sciences. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S.

GEOG 310. Geography of the City. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the structure, growth, and development of cities. Topics include the use of urban land, location of public services, structure of the urban economy, social problems of urban populations, and decay and revitalization. Prerequisites: Completion of General Education human behavior requirement.

GEOG 320. Political Geography. 3 Credits.

A study of the relationship between geographical and political factors; the nation state and its subdivisions; interaction among states; and the political geography of everyday life. Prerequisites: Completion of General Education human behavior requirement.

GEOG 321. World Economic Geography. 3 Credits.

An analysis of differences in spatial patterns on the economic landscape at national and international levels, and the processes which create such differences. Introduces basic concepts, theories, and models in economic geography at the global scale. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 325. Ethnic Minorities. 3 Credits.

A study of ethnic minorities worldwide with emphasis on geographical dimensions of ethnic identity and relationships between ethnicity and territory, regionalism, politics, and cultural expression. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 330. Field Methods. 3 Credits.

A review of selected techniques for generating data in a field situation. Lectures deal with the description and evaluation of techniques such as sampling methods, observation, interviewing, questionnaires, human relations skills and ethical considerations. The project component involves the definition of field problems and the application of appropriate techniques. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 350. Geography of the United States and Canada. 3 Credits.

The human and physical geography of the United States and Canada with special emphasis on the distribution of population and natural resources, migration patterns, location of major economic activities, and the variety of regional identities within the U.S. and Canada. Prerequisites: Junior standing and six credits in human behavior, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 355. Topics in Regional Geography. 3 Credits.

A study of selected regions or selected problems within a particular region of the world. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 367. Cooperative Education. 1-3 Credits.

Student participation for credit based on the academic relevance of the work experience, criteria and evaluative procedures as formally determined by the department and Career Management prior to the semester in which the work experience is to take place. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: Approval by the department and Career Management.

GEOG 368. Internship in Geography. 1-12 Credits.

Individualized practical experience in the area of applied geography. The credits will be commensurate with the level of the student's involvement. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: Twelve hours in geography.

GEOG 395. Topics in Geography. 1-4 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses will appear in the course schedule and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 396. Topics in Geography. 1-4 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses will appear in the course schedule and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 398. Tutorial Work in Geography. 1-3 Credits.

Independent study under the direction of an instructor. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor.

GEOG 400W/500. Seminar in Geography. 3 Credits.

Advanced study of a specialized topic in geography. The choice of the topic may vary according to the availability of faculty expertise and student interest. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C; GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 402/502. Geographic Information Systems. 3 Credits.

A study of the conceptual basis of GIS as a tool for manipulating spatial information. The course focuses on how geographic information can be input and organized within the framework of a GIS. Students will work on a computer-based GIS to gain a greater understanding of spatial database structures and analytical operations. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor.

GEOG 404/504. Digital Techniques for Remote Sensing. 3 Credits.

Study of the theory and application of remote sensing, emphasizing environmental applications and aerial and satellite imagery. Covers the fundamentals of multispectral digital image processing, including sensors pre-processing, enhancement, classification, accuracy assessment, and GIS data integration. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor.

GEOG 405/505. Seminar in International Resource Management. 3 Credits.

Discussion of the ecological and management principles underlying international resource management and the goal of attaining a sustainable, ecologically balanced world. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S; GEOG 305 recommended.

GEOG 408/508. Cartography. 3 Credits.

Computer-assisted methods and techniques employed in the design, construction, and use of maps and other graphics as tools for data analysis and communication. Prerequisites: GEOG 300 or GEOG 402.

GEOG 410/510. Seminar in Urban Geography. 3 Credits.

Discussion of specific urban and metropolitan problems based on outside readings and individually selected research topics. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 411/511. Urban and Regional Planning. 3 Credits.

A study of planning concepts and powers used to guide contemporary metropolitan growth and development. Emphasis is on the application of social science principles and methods to the planning process. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 412/512. Cities of the World. 3 Credits.

An examination of cities of the world's major cultural realms with an emphasis on the urban landscape as it varies between developed and developing countries. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 418. Quantitative Methods. 3 Credits.

A survey of and practicum in the basic techniques of quantitative research, including the logic of empirical research, the identification of data sources, and the use of appropriate statistical techniques. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S, GEOG 308 with a grade of C- or better. Pre- or corequisite: STAT 130M with a grade of C- or better.

GEOG 419/519. Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments. 3 Credits.

The course integrates remotely sensed and field techniques for scientific investigation and practical management of coastal environmental systems. Spatial modeling of coastal processes and management tools using Geographic Information System (GIS). Prerequisites: GEOG 404 or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 420/520. Marine Geography. 3 Credits.

An analysis of human-sea relationships with particular emphasis on resource management and political organization from global, regional, and national perspectives. Prerequisites: Junior standing and six credits in human behavior, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 422W/522. Coastal Geography. 3 Credits.

An examination of the physical and human geography of the coastal zone. Considers problems of managing coastal resources with an emphasis on North America. Lectures focus on coastal patterns, processes, and problems at the global, national, and local scales. Students investigate a section of the local coastline and write a report on the physical and human geography on the basis of field study, library, and internet research. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or 101S, a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 425/525. Internet Geographic Information Systems. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical exploration of methods, standards, and policies related to the development and utilization of geographic information systems on the Internet. Students will create and utilize distributed geospatial data and analytical systems using the WWW and the Internet to address geographical problems. Prerequisites: GEOG 402.

GEOG 432/532. Advanced GIS. 3 Credits.

The study of a series of advanced topics in the field of geographic information systems/science. Focus is placed on the development of projects/models and a survey of several advanced techniques. Students will work on a computer based GIS to implement topics from lectures. Prerequisites: GEOG 402.

GEOG 451/551. Europe. 3 Credits.

A geographical analysis of the interrelationships among physical, cultural, economic, and political factors in Europe. Prerequisites: Junior standing and GEOG 100S or 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 452/552. Africa. 3 Credits.

A geographical analysis of the interrelationships among physical, cultural, economic, and political factors in Africa. Prerequisites: Junior standing and GEOG 100S or 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 453/553. Asia. 3 Credits.

A geographical analysis of the interrelationships among physical, cultural, economic, and political factors in Asia excluding the Middle East and the former USSR. Prerequisites: Junior standing and GEOG 100S or 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 454W/554. Latin America. 3 Credits.

A geographical analysis of the interrelationships among physical, cultural, economic, and political factors in Latin America. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: Junior standing, GEOG 100S or 101S, a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 455/555. The Middle East. 3 Credits.

A geographical analysis of the interrelationships among physical, cultural, economic, and political factors in the Middle East. Prerequisites: Junior standing and GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S, or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 456/556. Geography of Southeast Asia. 3 Credits.

Analysis of the physical, historical, cultural, economic, environmental, and political patterns and problems of Southeast Asia. The focus is on the diversity of the region and on the nature and impact of development. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S.

GEOG 458/558. Geography of Virginia. 3 Credits.

An analysis of Virginia's population, resources, and regional landscapes as they have been influenced by physical, cultural, historical, and economic factors. Prerequisites: GEOG 100S or GEOG 101S.

GEOG 480W. Senior Seminar in International Studies. 3 Credits.

Interdisciplinary research and the preparation of a senior thesis in international studies. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, senior standing in the BAIS degree program or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 490/590. Applied Cartography/GIS. 1-3 Credits.

Practical experience in applying the principles of cartography and geographical information systems to the design and construction of maps and other graphics. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 495/595. Topics in Geography. 1-4 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: Appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 496/596. Topics in Geography. 1-4 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: Appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

GEOG 497/597. Independent Research in Geography. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of the instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: Senior standing and approval of the director of geography.

GEOG 498/598. Tutorial Work in Geography. 1-3 Credits.

Independent study under the direction of an instructor. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.

GEOG 499. Senior Thesis. 3 Credits.

Completion of a research paper supervised by a faculty member from the Geography program. Research topic to be selected in concert with the faculty supervisor and a final written report required. Prerequisites: GEOG 308 and senior standing in Geography.

POLITICAL SCIENCE Courses

POLS 100S. Introduction to International Politics. 3 Credits.

This course provides a basic introduction to the study of international politics. It considers some of the more prominent theoretical perspectives in the discipline and examines the major political, economic, social and environmental issues presently facing the global community. The course prepares students for advanced study in international politics.

POLS 101S. Introduction to American Politics. 3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the political processes and the institutions of American politics. The course examines American political culture, gender and minority rights, citizen participation, national institutions, public policy, and foreign and defense policy.

POLS 102S. Introduction to Comparative Government and Politics. 3 Credits.

This course introduces basic concepts and methods for the study of comparative politics. It also surveys and compares the political/socioeconomic development, political cultures/ideologies, political institutions, decision-making processes, and public policies of various countries in the world.

POLS 126S. Honors: Introduction to American Politics. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special honors section of POLS 101S.

POLS 127S. Honors: Introduction to International Politics. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. Special honors section of POLS 100S.

POLS 300. Introduction to Public Policy. 3 Credits.

An introduction to various approaches to policy making followed by a detailed study of several of the most important domestic contemporary issues (housing, transportation, education, welfare, etc.). Prerequisites: Six credits in human behavior.

POLS 301W. Introduction to Public Law. 3 Credits.

Introduces the student to the American legal system through an examination of its institutions, practitioners, and processes. A general survey of constitutional law, administrative law, civil and criminal law, and selected topics of substantive and procedural dimensions of the court system. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: POLS 101S and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C.

POLS 306. Judicial Process and Behavior. 3 Credits.

In-depth analysis of the American court system with an emphasis on the political behavior of the system's participants and the procedural dimensions of the court system. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 307. Constitutional Criminal Procedure. 3 Credits.

Development of criminal procedure under the United States Constitution, with particular emphasis on the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments as interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 308. Research Design. 3 Credits.

Covers the design and implementation of quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry in social sciences. Prerequisites: POLS 100S, POLS 101S and POLS 102S or permission of instructor.

POLS 309. Race, Culture and Public Policy. 3 Credits.

This course examines the public policy problems of various racial groups in America. It analyzes the extent to which the American political system protects and promotes the concerns of African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Asians. Prerequisites: Six hours in human behavior.

POLS 310. Political Theory. 3 Credits.

This course is a survey of political theory covering political thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli, Locke, Mill, Marx and Rawls as well as central concepts like justice, order, liberty, and equality. Prerequisites: POLS 100S and 101S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 311. Virginia Politics and Government. 3 Credits.

This course is a survey of Virginia state and local government institutions, functions, processes, and behavior of political actors. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 312. American Political Thought. 3 Credits.

The course considers the origins, evolution, purposes, and relevancy of American political thought. It includes studies in democracy versus elitism; civil disobedience versus revolution; liberalism versus conservatism. Prerequisites: POLS 101S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 313. United Nations Seminar. 1 Credit.

An examination of the United Nations and key issues facing the international community. Includes a three-day visit to United Nations headquarters in New York. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 314. European Politics. 3 Credits.

Analyzes and compares the major political functions and the social, economic, and cultural bases of European states. Also examines the contemporary movement for European economic, military, and political unity. Prerequisites: POLS 100S or POLS 102S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 316. Politics of Africa. 3 Credits.

This course is intended to familiarize students with the struggles, advances, and setbacks of African peoples for state-building and socioeconomic development during the colonial and post-independence eras. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 319. Lobbies and Interest Groups. 3 Credits.

A survey of the lobby movement in America, its history and present status, with particular attention to current lobbies and interest groups and their impact on the national government. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 320. United Nations I. 3 Credits.

Part One of the history, working and role of the United Nations system, stressing contemporary issues and student participation in UN simulations and conferences. Prerequisites: POLS 100S or GEOG 100S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 321W. United Nations II. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: POLS 100S or GEOG 100S and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C; POLS 320 recommended or instructor permission. Part II of the history, working and role of the United Nations system. The course includes management of a major UN simulation, conference attendance and debate on the role of the UN in current global issues. (This is a writing intensive course.).

POLS 323. International Political Economy. 3 Credits.

Introduces students to the primary mechanisms of the global political economy in allocating goods, income, wealth and the means to produce them, with emphasis on the international division of labor. Prerequisites: Six hours of human behavior.

POLS 324. International Relations Theory. 3 Credits.

Comparative study of the various theories that attempt to explain the patterns of interactions among the different members of the global community. Draws on historical and modern cases to explain traditional and alternative theories. Prerequisites: POLS 100S and an additional three hours of human behavior.

POLS 325W. World Politics. 3 Credits.

This course is designed for intermediate students who are interested in the theoretical and systematic study of world politics. The course first introduces students to several major theoretical approaches to the study of world politics, and then applies these approaches to a number of major issues--ranging from conflict and cooperation, arms control, the protection of human rights, international trade, economic development, and environmental preservation. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, six hours of human behavior and junior standing.

POLS 326W. American Foreign Policy. 3 Credits.

This course presents those factors that go into the making and analyzing of American foreign policy, explores their application in decision making, and seeks to test their utilization against contemporary problems. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: POLS 100S and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, or permission of the instructor.

POLS 327W. Politics of National Security. 3 Credits.

Examination of issues facing America as it debates the use of international force, including the range of national security choices, defense reform, and the tensions between American resort to warfare and global trends transforming the ability to use violence effectively. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: POLS 100S or permission of the instructor and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C.

POLS 328. Russian Politics. 3 Credits.

Starting with the Soviet communist system, explores Russia's efforts to establish democracy and the rule of law, to fashion a productive, beneficial market economy, to establish viable relationships with the other former republics of the USSR and to craft advantageous foreign and military policies toward the West, Asia, and the developing countries. Prerequisites: POLS 100S or POLS 102S or GEOG 100S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 331. State and Local Government. 3 Credits.

This course is a survey of state and local government institutions, functions, processes, and behavior of political actors. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 332W. Europe in World Affairs. 3 Credits.

Analyzes European politics from World War II to the present. Emphasizes the foreign policies of major European states, including policies towards EU and NATO. Prerequisite: POLS 100Sand ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C.

POLS 333. Media and Politics. 3 Credits.

An examination of the development of the news media and the role of political communication and information in American politics. Analysis of the newsmaking process; media coverage of political campaigns, the President and Congress; the impact of the news media on the American public; and the interaction between public officials and journalists. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 334. Electoral Politics. 3 Credits.

A survey of electoral politics and behavior, including the structure of the electoral system, contemporary political campaigning, political partisanship, voting behavior, and role of interest groups in the electoral process. Prerequisites: POLS 101S and another three hours in political science.

POLS 335. Environmental Politics. 3 Credits.

This course examines the evolution of environmentalism in the United States, including the policy-making process, science and the role played by the public and political institutions. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 336. South Asia Since Independence. 3 Credits.

This is a comparative study of the main political, economic and social developments in the major countries of South Asia. Themes will include democratization, problems of economic development, the role of caste and religion, the causes of intrastate conflict and interstate conflict and the influence of global forces on the region. Prerequisites: POLS 100S or POLS 102S.

POLS 337. Latin American Politics. 3 Credits.

Examines the evolution of Latin American politics, including early colonial and caudillo rule, populism and radicalism, the emergence of military regimes, and the reestablishment of constitutional democracies. Also considers contemporary economic, social, cultural, and environmental issues which condition state-society relations in the region. Prerequisites: Six hours in human behavior.

POLS 338W. Politics of East Asia. 3 Credits.

This course examines political cultures/traditions, governmental institutions, decision-making processes, public policies, political organizations, and significant socio-political issues of such East Asian countries as China, Japan and Korea. In addition, it explores the collective impact of these countries on world politics and global economy. (This is a writing-intensive course.) Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 110C and ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, six hours in human behavior, and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 350T. Technology and War. 3 Credits.

This course examines the fundamental changes and continuities that the evolution of technology has brought to armed conflict. It explores the historical development of technology and warfare, emphasizing the role of cultural, social and political choice shaping the development of new military technologies and affecting how they are used. What is the future of Western assumptions about technologically dominated warfare? Prerequisites: POLS 100S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 367. Cooperative Education. 1-3 Credits.

Student participation for credit based on the academic relevance of the work experience, criteria, and evaluative procedures as formally determined by the department and Career Management prior to the semester in which the work experience is to take place. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: Approval of the department chair and Career Management.

POLS 368. Internship in Political Science. 1-12 Credits.

Individualized practical experience in public bureaucracies, political groups, administrative agencies or law firms. Group seminars are held periodically under the supervision of faculty. Credits are commensurate with the level of the student's involvement. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: Nine hours in political science, 3 of which must be in an upper-level course.

POLS 395. Topics in Political Science. 1-3 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses and any additional prerequisites will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing and permission of the instructor.

POLS 396. Topics in Political Science. 1-3 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses and any additional prerequisites will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing and permission of the instructor.

POLS 400. Congress. 3 Credits.

This is a detailed study of the institutional and behavioral factors at work in legislative decision making, especially at the national level. Emphases are on the interrelationships among Congress, the Presidency, and the bureaucracy and on learning how to do research on specific legislation. Prerequisites: POLS 101S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 401. Global Environmental Policy. 3 Credits.

This course analyzes the causes, severity, potential consequences, and proposed solutions regarding global ecological issues with special attention to the scientific debate and the political and policy process. It examines environmental policies of national governments, regional/international organizations, and global conferences. Prerequisites: Six credits in political science.

POLS 403/503. First Amendment Freedoms. 3 Credits.

The course deals with the development and practice of conflicting judicial and legal theories concerning our substantive guaranties. Students are asked to act as advocates in developing and substantiating theories of their own. Prerequisites: POLS 101S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 407. American Presidency. 3 Credits.

The course covers the development of presidential power and activity, the contemporary operations of the Presidency, and the problems which may confront the institution in the future. Prerequisites: POLS 101S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 408. American Constitutional Law and Politics I. 3 Credits.

An examination of the vexatious line between the rights of individuals and those of the state in the American democracy, focusing on such major issues as freedom of expression and worship; freedom of the press; separation of church and state; privacy; and racial and gender discrimination. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 409. American Constitutional Law and Politics II. 3 Credits.

An examination of separation of powers, federalism and the democratic process as reflected by Supreme Court decisions. Also, the Supreme Court as a political institution. Prerequisites: POLS 101S.

POLS 410/510. African American Politics. 3 Credits.

This course examines the political development of Black people in the United States by focusing on the relationship and processes of the American political system. The political dynamics of Black political thought, the Civil Rights Movement, and Black protest politics are also analyzed. Prerequisites: Six hours in human behavior and junior standing.

POLS 412/512. Politics of the Civil Rights Movement. 3 Credits.

Examines the political activities which resulted in the passage of the nation's second Civil Rights policy, the 1960 and 1964 Civil Rights Acts, the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the 1968 Fair Housing Act. The course will analyze the underpinnings, leadership, and political strategies of the Civil Rights Movement. Prerequisites: Six hours in human behavior and junior standing.

POLS 414/514. Politics of Education. 3 Credits.

The question of power, often ignored by education policy analysts and researchers, is a principal focus of this seminar. Issues ranging from the role of education in political socialization and the politics of affirmative action and equal opportunity are examined. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 415/515. Women and Politics in America. 3 Credits.

Examines women's place in political theory and the practice of politics in the United States. A major focus is to trace the development of women's political rights, the impact of public policy on the lives of American women and to see how women influence and participate in the political process. Prerequisites: POLS 101S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 418. Quantitative Methods. 3 Credits.

A survey of and practicum in the basic techniques of quantitative research, including the logic of empirical research, the identification of data sources, and the use of appropriate statistical techniques. Prerequisites: POLS 101S and a grade of C- or better in POLS 308. Pre- or corequisite: A grade of C- or better in STAT 130M.

POLS 419. Jurisprudence. 3 Credits.

An examination of the history of legal thought and developments of natural law, as well as an in-depth analysis of legal positivism and realism. Particular attention is paid to American legal philosophy. Prerequisites: POLS 408 or POLS 409 or permission of the instructor.

POLS 420W/520. Southern Politics. 3 Credits.

This seminar focuses on the politics of the American South from the 1940s to the present. Emphasis is on introducing students to contrasting explanations and analysis about the politics of the American South. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: POLS 101S and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, or permission of the instructor.

POLS 421/521. International Law. 3 Credits.

Surveys major areas of public international law (e.g., laws of warfare, law of the sea, conflict resolution, etc.). Emphasizes the relationship between international law and international politics. Prerequisites: Six hours in political science or permission of the instructor; POLS 325W is recommended.

POLS 424/524. International Organization. 3 Credits.

Course provides a basis for understanding the role and importance of international organizations in contemporary international relations. Focuses on development and history of global organizations, with particular emphasis on the United Nations, and regional and functional organizations. Prerequisites: POLS 100S and POLS 325W and additional internationally-focused course or permission of the instructor.

POLS 434/534. Political Participation in the United States. 3 Credits.

An examination of current theories and research on political behavior, conventional and unconventional modes of political participation, and the impact of participation on the political system. Prerequisites: Six semester hours of political science.

POLS 435/535. Chinese Politics. 3 Credits.

A study of origins of the Chinese revolution; development and functions of the Chinese Communist Party; government institutions; the defense establishment; evolution of foreign policy; and post-Mao political and economic reforms. Prerequisites: POLS 100S and POLS 102S or permission of the instructor.

POLS 436/536. Japanese Politics. 3 Credits.

A study of Japan's historical political development and social patterns; government institutions; problems of the constitution; and foreign and defense policy. Prerequisites: POLS 100S and POLS 102 or permission of the instructor.

POLS 437/537. International Relations in East Asia. 3 Credits.

A study of contemporary issues (political, economic, and strategic) in the East Asia area; the interactions of China, Japan, the United States, and the former Soviet republics in East Asia. Prerequisites: POLS 100S.

POLS 439/539. International Relations of African States. 3 Credits.

This course aims to expose students to an examination of the workings of international politics from the viewpoint of Africans and African states. International relations have tended to look at the world from the viewpoint of its most powerful states. Yet, most the world's states - notably in Africa - are weak but have great potential global impact. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 442/542. Twentieth Century Dictatorships. 3 Credits.

A study of the Fascist, Nazi, Stalin and Mao regimes and the forces that brought them to power and sustained them, including a study of the impact of their policies on their people and neighboring states. Prerequisites: Six hours in human behavior and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 445. Globalization: Dynamics and Implications. 3 Credits.

Explores the essential characteristics of globalization and its implications for social relations and existing institutions. Prerequisites: Three hours in economics and 6 hours in political science.

POLS 455/555. The Politics of Climate Change. 3 Credits.

An examination of the science of climate change and how United States political actors have responded to this global environmental challenge. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 458. Weapons of Mass Destruction in Global Security. 3 Credits.

Since the end of the Cold War, weapons of mass destruction have emerged as one of the most dangerous and contentious issues in international affairs. The course examines how these weapons are made, how they proliferate, and how they are controlled. Prerequisites: POLS 100S.

POLS 461. Seminar in European Politics. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on one specific European country such as France, Germany, the United Kingdom, etc. Examination of trends and events which most influenced the evolution of domestic politics and foreign relations from World War II to the present. Prerequisites: POLS 100S or POLS 102S and POLS 314 or POLS 332W.

POLS 462. Ethnic Conflict in the New Global Order. 3 Credits.

Ethnically based conflict is presently a pervasive worldwide phenomenon. This course examines internal and external factors causing ethnic conflicts and mechanisms for resolving or mitigating such conflicts. Prerequisites: Six hours in human behavior.

POLS 466/566. Politics of the Middle East. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the political processes throughout the region and in selected nations of the Middle East. Topics to be discussed include inter-Arab relations, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Iran-Iraq rivalry and foreign power involvement in the Middle East. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 470. African Americans and Foreign Affairs. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on race, ethnicity, and the role and influence of African Americans in international affairs and American foreign policy making. It investigates the activities of African Americans in the international arena. The emphasis is on how African Americans have participated and the results of that participation from the era of slavery to Barack Obama. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 480W. Senior Seminar in International Studies. 3 Credits.

Interdisciplinary research and preparation of a senior thesis in international studies (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, senior standing in the BAIS degree program or permission of the instructor.

POLS 481. Seminar in American Politics. 3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics in American politics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. Prerequisites: Junior standing in political science.

POLS 493. Great Decisions. 1 Credit.

An examination and discussion of critical world issues based upon the Foreign Policy Association's Great Decision Series. Prerequisites: POLS 100S or POLS 101S.

POLS 495/595. Topics in Political Science. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics in political science which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. Prerequisites: Appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

POLS 496/596. Topics in Political Science. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. Prerequisites: Appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

POLS 497/597. Independent Research in Political Science. 1-3 Credits.

Independent research in political science under the supervision of a faculty member. Prerequisites: Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

POLS 498. Tutorial Work-Special Topics. 1-3 Credits.

Independent research in political science under the supervision of a faculty member. Prerequisites: Senior standing or permission of instructor.