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Old Dominion University

2013-2014 Catalog

PHIL - Philosophy

PHILOSOPHY Courses

PHIL 110P. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An introduction to basic concepts, methods and issues in philosophy, and a consideration of representative types of philosophical thought concerning human nature, the world, knowledge, and value.

PHIL 120P. Logic and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the principles of correct reasoning and the types of fallacious reasoning. Includes an examination of the philosophical and historical context of logic, and the application of logical methods to philosophical questions.

PHIL 126P. Honors: Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special honors section of PHIL 110P.

PHIL 127P. Honors: Introduction to Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. Scientific developments are used as an occasion for philosophical reflection. In the process the student is led to a better understanding of science. The course introduces and makes use of basic logical and conceptual tools of philosophy.

PHIL 140P. Introduction to Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

Scientific developments are used as an occasion for philosophical reflection. In the process the student is led to a better understanding of science. The course introduces and makes use of basic logical and conceptual tools of philosophy.

PHIL 227E. Honors: World Religions: Beliefs and Values. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special Honors section of PHIL 250E.

PHIL 228E. Honors: Introduction to Ethics. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours, 3 credits. Open only to students in the Honors College. A special Honors section of PHIL 230E.

PHIL 230E. Introduction to Ethics. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the study of ethics through philosophical reflection on a variety of moral issues of contemporary significance. Topics covered will vary by semester and instructor, and may include issues drawn from professional fields such as business, medicine, and information technology, plus matters of public concern like the environment, the treatment of animals, the use of military force, social justice, and civil and human rights.

PHIL 250E. World Religions: Beliefs and Values. 3 Credits.

A comparative and philosophical study of major world religions in the Eastern and Western traditions with particular attention being paid to their views about the basis of right action and the nature of good and evil. Other points of comparison include the foundations of religious knowledge and belief, the meaning of human life, divinity, and death and immortality. A student with credit for PHIL 150P cannot receive credit for PHIL 250E.

PHIL 303E. Business Ethics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: ENGL 110C. A philosophical examination of ethical issues that arise in business and commerce. Topics discussed will vary by semester and instructor, but may include affirmative action, ethical versus unethical sales and marketing techniques, the obligations of business to society (if any), and the moral foundations of capitalism.

PHIL 304. Marx and the Marxists. 3 Credits.

Learning how to understand Marxism, yesterday and today, through readings, applications, exercises for discussion and projects. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 305. American Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An examination of the writings of some of the major American philosophers such as Peirce, James, Royce, Dewey, and Whitehead. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 313. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Credits.

An analytical and critical consideration of the philosophical foundations of religion. Such topics as the existence of God, the problem of evil, theism and atheism, prayer, and immortality are discussed. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 314. Studies in Western Religious Thought. 3 Credits.

Various topics exploring religious, philosophical, and cultural themes in the traditions of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. Prerequisites: Three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 324. Philosophy of Art. 3 Credits.

A study of the various theories of art and human creativity in the context of historical and cultural backgrounds. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 330W. Ancient Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the thought of the classical Greek and Roman philosophers from the sixth century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: Junior standing, a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, and three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 331. Modern Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the thought of the major Western philosophers through the eighteenth century, including the empirical tradition of Bacon, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, the rationalistic tradition of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and the critical philosophy of Kant. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 332. Medieval Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: ENGL 110C. This course examines the significant contributions of medieval philosophers to the development of philosophy of religion as well as other fields, including philosophy of language, logic, and ethics. Students examine the writings of medieval philosophers from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions.

PHIL 340. Logic I. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor. A study of the basic concepts and methods of logic as they occur in ordinary language, formal logical arguments, and an elementary logical system. Traditional Logic is emphasized, but some elements of Modern Logic are also introduced.

PHIL 344E. Environmental Ethics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor. An examination of the nature and basis of human obligations for the welfare of the environment with special attention to the foundations of ethical decision making.

PHIL 345E. Bioethics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C. An examination of the philosophical foundations of ethical decision making in biology, medicine, and the life scineces.

PHIL 353. Asian Religions. 3 Credits.

A study of religious and philosophical traditions of India, China and Japan. Primary emphasis will be given to Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 354. Comparative Philosophy East and West - Personhood. 3 Credits.

An examination of the philosophical theme "personhood" in Eastern and Western traditions. The course includes a methodology for comparative analysis, a dialogue on key issues and their application to contemporary topics from historical and contemporary religious, psychological and gender perspectives. The class samples well known positions in the Eastern and Western traditions as well as social and political contexts for the various conceptions. Prerequisites: PHIL 110P or PHIL 120P or PHIL 140P or PHIL 230E or PHIL 250E or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 355. Computer Ethics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor. An examination of ethical issues created, aggravated or transformed by computer technology. Theory-grounded paradigms of ethical decision making are presented with application to realistic cases. Principal topics: computer crime, privacy, cyberspace, and business applications.

PHIL 369. Practicum. 3 Credits.

1-3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing; minimum of 15 credit hours in philosophy. The course offers three forms of practical experience for philosophy majors: Professional (for students anticipating careers in relevant professions, including philosophy); Classroom (for students anticipating graduate study and a teaching career); Civic/Social Affairs (for students interested in grassroots activism). Consult the department for details and certain specific prerequisites. (qualifies as a CAP experience).

PHIL 383T. Technology: Its Nature and Significance. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: ENGL 110C. A philosophical examination of technology with special attention to its relationship with and mutual dependence upon society, culture, and human values. Historical developments and specific technologies are also covered.

PHIL 395. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing or approval of the department chair.

PHIL 396. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing or approval of the department chair.

PHIL 402/502. Gender and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A philosophical survey of approaches to understanding gender and gender differences. The course will also serve as an introduction to feminist philosophy, with a particular emphasis on feminist ethics. Prerequisites: Junior standing and a grade of C or better in ENGL 110C and ENGL 211C, ENGL 221C, or ENGL 231C.

PHIL 404/504. Twentieth Century Continental Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of influential contemporary movements in European philosophy. Emphasis will be given to the writings of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Gadamer, Derrida, and Foucault. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 406/506. Contemporary Analytic Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the twentieth-century analytic tradition, including such thinkers as Moore, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ayer, Carnap, Ryle, Wisdom, and Austin. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 410/510. Social and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A philosophical analysis of the relation between man, society, and the state, studying about a dozen philosophers since Plato on such topics as justice, authority, law, freedom, and civil rights. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 411/511. Postmodernism and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An examination of intellectual currents in postmodernism as they pertain to central questions in social and political thought. The course covers the roots of modernism in the Enlightenment and various challenges to modernism in 19th and 20th century thought. Particular attention is given to the prospects for democracy in postmodern thinking. Prerequisites: Three semester hours in philosophy and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 412/512. Philosophy of Law. 3 Credits.

An examination of the nature of law and philosophical issues concerning the law. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 417/517. Philosophy and Educational Issues. 3 Credits.

Considers the relationship of philosophy and education. Topics considered include: philosophy as a foundation for education, education as an institution, and educational and philosophical issues as they relate to each other. Prerequisites: Junior standing and one introductory philosophy course or a course in principles of education.

PHIL 423/523. Philosophy of Work. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor. An examination of philosophical issues surrounding the practice of work. Topics to be discussed may include the definition of work, alienation, exploitation, whether there is a right to work or a right not to work, religious perspectives on work, and gender issues in work.

PHIL 427/527. Myth and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the nature of myth, its role and importance in human thought. The analysis will stress the relationships between mythology, religion, literature, drama, and philosophy in ancient Greece. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 431/531. Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of significant intellectual innovations and revolutions in nineteenth century European thought that helped shape the modern mind. Emphasis will be given to the writings of Kant, Schopenhauer, Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 434/534. Contemporary Theory of Knowledge. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor. This course provides students with a problem-oriented, critical, and comparative understanding of problems in contemporary epistemology. Topics include skepticism and responses thereto, analyses of knowledge, the externalist versus internalist debate, foundationalism and coherentism, and social approaches to knowledge including contextualism and feminism.

PHIL 435/535. Philosophy of Psychology. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor. An examination of various ways in which the mind has been understood in philosophy and in psychology and of the methods that have been used in the study of the mind.

PHIL 440/540. Philosophy of Natural Sciences. 3 Credits.

A study of the concepts and philosophical problems common to the natural sciences: scientific reasoning, confirmation, explanation, laws, meaning, theories, revolutions, progress, and values. Prerequisites: junior standing, three semester hours in philosophy and eight semester hours of laboratory science.

PHIL 441E/541. Foundations of Ethics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C and junior standing. An inquiry into the philosophical foundations of ethical inquiry. Various ethical systems are considered, and different views of metaethics and moral psychology may be as well.

PHIL 442E/542. Studies in Applied Ethics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: ENGL 110C and Junior standing. An intensive examination of ethical issues in a particular field or profession; an emphasis on ethical theory underlying practical decisions.

PHIL 480/580. Hinduism. 3 Credits.

An intensive study of the basic teachings of Hinduism as manifested in its sacred writings. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 481/581. Buddhism. 3 Credits.

A study of the origin, historical development, and contemporary status of Buddhism, in terms of its religious and philosophical elements and its influence in Asian cultures. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 482/582. Chinese Religion and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of Chinese thought emphasizing Early and Classical Confucianism and Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and NeoConfucianism. Modern currents of Chinese thought is also discussed. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 485/585. Japanese Religion and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the religious and philosophical traditions of Japan. Emphasis will be given to Shintoism, Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism and their contemporary status and influence in Japanese culture. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 491/591. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 492/592. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 493/593. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 494/594. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 495/595. Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 496/596. Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 497/597. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: senior standing and approval of the department chair.

PHIL 498/598. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: senior standing and approval of the department chair.

PHIL 502. Gender and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A philosophical survey of approaches to understanding gender and gender differences. The course will also serve as an introduction to feminist philosophy, with a particular emphasis on feminist ethics.

PHIL 504. Twentieth-Century Continental Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of influential contemporary movements in European philosophy. Emphasis will be given to the writings of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Gadamer, Derrida, and Foucault.

PHIL 506. Contemporary Analytic Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the twentieth-century analytic tradition, including such thinkers as Moore, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ayer, Carnap, Ryle, Wisdom, and Austin.

PHIL 510. Social and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A philosophical analysis of the relation between man, society, and the state, studying about a dozen philosophers since Plato on such topics as justice, authority, law, freedom, and civil rights.

PHIL 511. Postmodernism and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An examination of intellectual currents in postmodernism as they pertain to central questions in social and political thought. The course covers the roots of modernism in the Enlightenment and various challenges to modernism in 19th and 20th century thought. Particular attention is given to the prospects for democracy in postmodern thinking.

PHIL 512. Philosophy of Law. 3 Credits.

An examination of the nature of law and philosophical issues concerning the law.

PHIL 517. Philosophy and Educational Issues. 3 Credits.

Considers the relationship of philosophy and education. Topics considered include: philosophy as a foundation for education, education as an institution, and educational and philosophical issues as they relate to each other.

PHIL 523. Philosophy of Work. 3 Credits.

An examination of philosophical issues surrounding the practice of work. Topics to be discussed may include the definition of work, alienation, exploitation, whether there is a right to work or a right not to work, religious perspectives on work, and gender issues in work.

PHIL 527. Myth and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the nature of myth, its role and importance in human thought. The analysis will stress the relationships between mythology, religion, literature, drama, and philosophy in ancient Greece.

PHIL 531. Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of significant intellectual innovations and revolutions in nineteenth century European thought that helped shape the modern mind. Emphasis will be given to the writings of Kant, Schopenhauer, Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche.

PHIL 534. Contemporary Theory of Knowledge. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with a problem-oriented, critical, and comparative understanding of problems in contemporary epistemology. Topics include skepticism and responses thereto, analyses of knowledge, the externalist versus internalist debate, foundationalism and coherentism, and social approaches to knowledge including contextualism and feminism.

PHIL 535. Philosophy of Psychology. 3 Credits.

An examination of various ways in which the mind has been understood in philosophy and in psychology and of the methods that have been used in the study of the mind.

PHIL 540. Philosophy of Natural Sciences. 3 Credits.

A study of the concepts and philosophical problems common to the natural sciences: scientific reasoning, confirmation, explanation, laws, meaning, theories, revolutions, progress, and values.

PHIL 541. Foundations of Ethics. 3 Credits.

An inquiry into the philosophical foundations of ethical theory. Various ethical systems are considered, and different views of metaethics and moral psychology may be as well.

PHIL 542. Studies in Applied Ethics. 3 Credits.

An intensive examination of ethical issues in a particular field or profession; an emphasis on ethical theory underlying practical decisions.

PHIL 580. Hinduism. 3 Credits.

An intensive study of the basic teachings of Hinduism as manifested in its sacred writings.

PHIL 581. Buddhism. 3 Credits.

A study of the origin, historical development, and contemporary status of Buddhism, in terms of its religious and philosophical elements and its influence in Asian cultures.

PHIL 582. Chinese Religion and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of Chinese thought emphasizing Early and Classical Confucianism and Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and NeoConfucianism. Modern currents of Chinese thought are also discussed.

PHIL 585. Japanese Religion and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the religious and philosophical traditions of Japan. Emphasis will be given to Shintoism, Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism and their contemporary status and influence in Japanese culture.

PHIL 591. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher.

PHIL 592. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher.

PHIL 593. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher.

PHIL 594. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher.

PHIL 595. Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors.

PHIL 596. Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors.

PHIL 597. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate.

PHIL 598. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate.

PHIL 603. Studies in Social and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An intensive study of one or more figures, movements, or theoretical questions in social and political philosophy. Prerequisites: One 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of "B" or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 606. Studies in Asian Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An intensive study of one concept, movement, or thinker indigenous to the Asian philosophical tradition.

PHIL 608. Studies in Ancient Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of certain philosophers, movements or specific philosophical issues in the ancient Greek and early Roman periods. Prerequisites: One 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 609. Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

A consideration of some philosophical problem or problem area related to science or to some position or tradition in the philosophy of science. Prerequisites: One 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 610. Studies in the Philosophy of Art. 3 Credits.

An evaluation of the field of art in relation to the rest of human culture, emphasizing the various approaches that may be used. Prerequisites: One 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 611. Studies in the History of Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A consideration of selected themes in the history of philosophy, or the specific examination of one major philosopher or group of related philosophers. Prerequisites: One 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 695. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: One 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent). The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualifies students to work in subjects of mutual interest that, die to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly.

PHIL 697. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: approval of the department chair and one 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 698. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: approval of the department chair and one 500-level Philosophy course with a grade of “B” or higher (or equivalent).

PHIL 707. Ethics in Public Health Practice. 1-3 Credits.

An investigation of ethical issues in public health policy, practice, and research. Students will develop a capacity for reasoned judgments in these matters by understanding and applying basic moral concepts, theories, and ideals. Prerequisites: open to all graduate students in relevant fields.

PHIL 710. International Rights. 3 Credits.

A philosophical study of rights applicable to the international arena. Theories from the early Modern European period to the present day will be treated. Coverage includes international law, the rights of nations, and human rights. Prerequisites: approval of instructor.

PHIL 795. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

The advanced study of special topics that may not be offered regularly.

PHIL 797. Tutorial in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: approval of the department chair.

PHIL 807. Ethics in Public Health Practice. 1-3 Credits.

An investigation of ethical issues in public health policy, practice, and research. Students will develop a capacity for reasoned judgments in these matters by understanding and applying basic moral concepts, theories, and ideals. Prerequisites: Open to all graduate students in relevant fields.

PHIL 810. International Rights. 3 Credits.

A philosophical study of rights applicable to the international arena. Theories from the early Modern European period to the present day will be treated. Coverage includes international law, the rights of nations, and human rights. Prerequisites: approval of instructor.

PHIL 895. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

The advanced study of special topics that may not be offered regularly.

PHIL 897. Tutorial in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: approval of the department chair.