SPECIAL EDUCATION Courses

SPED 313. Fundamentals of Human Growth and Development: Birth through Adolescence. 3 Credits.

This course will contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development of children and adolescents and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences. The interaction of children and adolescents with economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical and intellectual differences will be explored. Developmental issues related to giftedness or disability and the impact of family disruptions, child abuse and substance abuse are included. Prerequisites: junior standing.

SPED 400/500. Foundations of Special Education: Legal Aspects and Characteristics. 3 Credits.

The course provides an introduction and overview of the field of special education from the perspective that it is a subsection of general education and that the field is in transition by virtue of philosophical, legislative and programmatic changes. Legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and critical analyses of research are addressed. This course includes a broad overview of the expectations associated with the identification, characteristics, and education of students with disabilities. Prerequisites: junior standing.

SPED 402/502. Instructional Design I: Learner Characteristics and Assessment. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide pre-service teachers with: (a) knowledge of the characteristics of students with mild disabilities who are accessing the general curriculum, K-12, including, but not limited to learning disabilities, emotional disabilities and intellectual disabilities and (b) the ability to develop knowledge and skill in the selection, administration, scoring and interpretation of standardized/norm-referenced assessments of exceptional learners. Administering formal and informal assessment tools and the development of an IEP are emphasized. The use of assessment data to improve instruction and student performance is discussed. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 403/503. Directed Field Experience in Special Education. 2 Credits.

This course provides variable hours of direct participation in a community or educational setting with individuals with special needs. The course includes specific skills of program planning, implementation, evaluation and classroom management. Practicum of 45 hours required. Corequisite: SPED 483. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 and SPED 402 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and SPED 502 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skill for Educator Tests or equivalent.

SPED 404/504. Characteristics and Medical Aspects of Disabling Conditions. 3 Credits.

This course reviews medical conditions present among individuals with disabilities and implications for classroom instruction. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 406/506. Students with Diverse Learning Needs in the General Education Classroom. 3 Credits.

This course introduces general education teachers to the legal aspects and educational needs of at-risk students and those with disabilities. Emphasis is on characteristics of children with special needs and procedures for effective academic, behavioral, and social integration of these children in the general education classroom. Prerequisites: junior standing.

SPED 411/511. Classroom and Behavioral Management Techniques for Students with Diverse Needs. 3 Credits.

This course will address classroom management techniques and individual interventions based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice. The course will focus on the field of applied behavior analysis, including best practices in the areas of data collection, program selection, program implementation, and data analysis. Positive behavior management and supports and functional behavioral assessment will be emphasized. Pre- or corequisite: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 415/515. Instructional Design II: Curricular Procedures and Individualized Education Planning. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide preservice teachers with: (a) knowledge of research-based instruction for K-12 students with disabilities and those who are gifted; (b) knowledge and skill in using data collection to make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, accommodations and teaching methodology for exceptional learners, and (c) knowledge and skill in planning, developing and implementing individual educational plans and group instruction for diverse exceptional learners who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning. Practicum in an elementary-level setting is required. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 and SPED 402 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 or SPED 502, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 417/517. Collaboration and Transitions. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the complex issues surrounding families and children with disabilities and transitions across the lifespan, as well as effective collaboration with families and professionals to support inclusion and/or effective early intervention services, educational programs and transition services for students at-risk and students with disabilities. Emphasis is on successful professional collaboration and effective relationships in educational, transition, and family settings. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 428/528. Instructional Strategies for Students Accessing the Adapted Curriculum. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the characteristics and instructional strategies of students accessing the adapted curriculum. Emphasis is on assessment, program development, academic, and functional skills instruction. This course addresses the needs of individuals with severe and/or profound multiple disabilities. 45 Hour Practicum Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 and SPED 411 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and SPED 511, and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 432/532. Characteristics of Students with Visual Impairments. 2 Credits.

Provides an overview of the characteristics of and services to persons with visual impairments, including the impact of visual impairment on infants' and children's growth and development, child and adolescent emotional and social development, and family interaction patterns. Considers the educational, conceptual, psycho-social, and physical implications of a visual impairment. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 433/533. Braille Code. 3 Credits.

This course provides instruction in the development, use, and application of the Braille literary code and its implications for educational/literacy programs for students with visual disabilities. Students will develop the skills to read and write contracted and uncontracted Braille, while acquiring instructional methodologies for teaching children who are blind to read and write. Sources of Braille materials for educational purposes are identified. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 434/534. Medical and Educational Implications of Visual Impairments. 3 Credits.

Provides an introduction to anatomy and physiology of the visual system and the educational implications of visual pathology. Topics include anatomy of the human eye, normal visual development, pathology of the eye, examination procedures for the identification of visual pathology, and the effects of pathology on visual learning and development. Practicum requires a minimum of 25 hours. Prerequisites: passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 435/535. Orientation and Mobility. 2 Credits.

Provides the foundation for understanding the components and essence of orientation and mobility. Establishes how the need for independent travel in the blind population created the field of O&M. Explores the philosophy and history of orientation and mobility including cane instruction, dog guides and methods of travel. Addresses techniques in developing orientation skills and basic mobility instruction. Motor and concept skill development are emphasized. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 436/536. Curriculum and Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments. 3 Credits.

Provides students with knowledge and understanding of the educational assessment of students with visual impairments and additional disabilities including deaf-blindness. Students will practice assessing and planning educational programs for students with visual impairments. Addresses assessment of technology for students with visual impairments. Examines determination of learning needs and appropriate learning media, relationship of assessment, IEP development, and placement. Practicum requires a minimum of 25 hours. Prerequisites: passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 437/537. Assistive Technology for People with Sensory Impairments. 3 Credits.

This course is designed for professionals and/or students interested in serving the visually impaired/blind population or hearing impaired/deaf population. It is designed to heighten the awareness of participants to specific technology and resources available to enhance and improve the ability of individuals with visual and hearing impairments to succeed in school, daily living activities and employment. Knowledge and awareness components of this course will be delivered via distance education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400 or SPED 500 and SPED 432 or SPED 532.

SPED 440/540. Assistive Technology for Diverse Students. 3 Credits.

This course provides lectures for pre-service and in-service teachers and related service providers of special populations in the use of assistive technology (AT) devices and services, and augmentative alternative communication (AAC) systems for instructional programs and computer applications. Study will involve compliance with federal and state laws, and national and state standards related to providing assistive technology to diverse students. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 441/541. Teaching Students with Severe Physical and Sensorimotor Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course reviews techniques for working with students who have severe physical and sensorimotor disabilities. Course emphasis is on proper positioning and handling for students with atypical motor/muscle development who function at developmental levels between birth and five years. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 460/560. Teaching Preschoolers With Diverse Needs. 3 Credits.

This course prepares students in developing skills in curricula, materials, and methods of instruction for preschool-aged (2-6 years) children with diverse needs. Programming for personal-social, language, motor, and cognitive development are addressed. Data collection, programmatic organization, and classroom planning are covered. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisite: SPED 400 or SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 461/561. Developmental/Ecological Assessment Strategies. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with the skills necessary for assessment of atypical development as well as best practices involved in assessment. Students explore and give assessments to children from birth through eight years of age or older with severe disabilities. Practicum of 45 hours required. Pre- or corequisite: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 467/567. Collaboration, Transitions and Infant-Family Intervention. 3 Credits.

This course prepares professionals from cross-discipline backgrounds to serve families with children who are at-risk and disabled from birth to age three. Emphasis is placed on development of IFSPs, procedures, materials, transitions, and curricula for this population. Observation of 20 hours in an infant-toddler program is required. Pre- or corequisite: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- of higher in SPED 500.

SPED 469/569. Communication/Language Development/Intervention for Students with Significant Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course examines symbolic and non-symbolic communication/language development and acquisition. Emphasis is on routine-based communication training, communication/language facilitation strategies, augmentative communication systems, and informal/functional communication/language assessment procedures for students in early childhood special education, students with autism, and students with multiple disabilities. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 483/583. Field Experience Seminar in Special Education. 1 Credit.

Explores issues, problems, concerns and processes related to teaching and entering the profession of teaching. Passing scores on the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) and Virginia Reading Assessment (VRA)/ Reading for Virginia Educators (RVE) will be required by the end of the course. Prerequisites: SPED 313, SPED 400/SPED 500, and SPED 402/SPED 502. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 403.

SPED 486/586. Teacher Candidate Internship for Special Endorsement. 12 Credits.

Seven weeks will be completed at the elementary level and seven weeks will be completed at the middle/secondary level. Qualifies as CAP experience. Students enrolled at the graduate level complete 9 credit hours. Prerequisites: admission to ODU Teacher Education Program; completion of the approved teacher education program in the specific endorsement area; completion of SPED 483; departmental approval; passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests (or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education); passing scores on Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA), the Virginia Reading Assessment (VRA)/Reading for Virginia Educators (RVE), the appropriate Praxis II content examination and endorsement program exit exam.

SPED 495/595. Topics in Special Education. 1-3 Credits.

This course offers selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest in the special education field. Prerequisites: SPED 400.

SPED 500. Foundations of Special Education: Legal Aspects and Characteristics. 3 Credits.

The course provides an introduction and overview of the field of special education from the perspective that it is a subsection of general education and that the field is in transition by virtue of philosophical, legislative and programmatic changes. Legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and critical analyses of research are addressed. This course includes a broad overview of the expectations associated with the identification, characteristics, and education of students with disabilities. Prerequisite: junior standing.

SPED 502. Instructional Design I: Learner Characteristics and Assessment. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide pre-service teachers with: (a) knowledge of the characteristics of students with mild disabilities who are accessing the general curriculum, K-12, including, but not limited to learning disabilities, emotional disabilities and intellectual disabilities and (b) the ability to develop knowledge and skill in the selection, administration, scoring and interpretation of standardized/norm-referenced assessments of exceptional learners. Administering formal and informal assessment tools and the development of an IEP are emphasized. The use of assessment data to improve instruction and student performance is discussed. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 503. Directed Field Experience in Special Education. 2 Credits.

This course provides variable hours of direct participation in a community or educational setting with individuals with special needs. The course includes specific skills of program planning, implementation, evaluation and classroom management. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 and SPED 402 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and SPED 502, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 583.

SPED 504. Characteristics and Medical Aspects of Disabling Conditions. 3 Credits.

This course reviews medical conditions present among individuals with disabilities and implications for classroom instruction. Prerequisites: SPED 400 or SPED 500.

SPED 506. Students with Diverse Learning Needs in the General Education Classroom. 3 Credits.

This course introduces general education teachers to the legal aspects and educational needs of at-risk students and those with disabilities. Emphasis is on characteristics of children with special needs and procedures for effective academic, behavioral, and social integration of these children in the general education classroom. Prerequisites: junior standing.

SPED 511. Classroom and Behavioral Management Techniques for Students with Diverse Needs. 3 Credits.

This course will address classroom management techniques and individual interventions based upon behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice. The course will focus on the field of applied behavior analysis, including best practices in the areas of data collection, program selection, program implementation, and data analysis. Positive behavior management and supports and functional behavioral assessment will be emphasized. Pre- or corequisite: a grade of C- of higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 515. Instructional Design II: Curricular Procedures and Individualized Education Planning. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide preservice teachers with: (a) knowledge of research-based instruction for K-12 students with disabilities and those who are gifted; (b) knowledge and skill in using data collection to make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, accommodations and teaching methodology for exceptional learners, and (c) knowledge and skill in planning, developing and implementing individual educational plans and group instruction for diverse exceptional learners who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 and SPED 402 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and SPED 502, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 517. Collaboration and Transitions. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the complex issues surrounding families and children with disabilities and transitions across the lifespan, as well as effective collaboration with families and professionals to support inclusion and/or effective early intervention services, educational programs and transition services for students at-risk and students with disabilities. Emphasis is on successful professional collaboration and effective relationships in educational, transition, and family settings. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 528. Instructional Strategies for Students Accessing the Adapted Curriculum. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the characteristics and instructional strategies of students accessing the adapted curriculum. Emphasis is on assessment, program development, academic, and functional skills instruction. This course addresses the needs of individuals with severe and/or profound multiple disabilities. 45 Hour Practicum Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 and SPED 411 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and SPED 511, and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 532. Characteristics of Students with Visual Impairments. 2 Credits.

Provides an overview of the characteristics of and services to persons with visual impairments, including the impact of visual impairment on infants’ and children’s growth and development, child and adolescent emotional and social development, and family interaction patterns. Considers the educational, conceptual, psycho-social, and physical implications of a visual impairment. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 533. Braille Code. 3 Credits.

This course provides instruction in the development, use, and application of the Braille literary code and its implications for educational/literacy programs for students with visual disabilities. Students will develop the skills to read and write contracted and uncontracted Braille, while acquiring instructional methodologies for teaching children who are blind to read and write. Sources of Braille materials for educational purposes are identified. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 534. Medical and Educational Implications of Visual Impairments. 3 Credits.

Provides an introduction to anatomy and physiology of the visual system and the educational implications of visual pathology. Topics include anatomy of the human eye, normal visual development, pathology of the eye, examination procedures for the identification of visual pathology, and the effects of pathology on visual learning and development. Practicum of 25 hours required. Prerequisites: passing Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests scores or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 535. Orientation and Mobility. 2 Credits.

Provides the foundation for understanding the components and essence of orientation and mobility. Establishes how the need for independent travel in the blind population created the field of O&M. Explores the philosophy and history of orientation and mobility including cane instruction, dog guides and methods of travel. Addresses techniques in developing orientation skills and basic mobility instruction. Motor and concept skill development are emphasized. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: Passing Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests scores or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 536. Curriculum and Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments. 3 Credits.

Provides students with knowledge and understanding of the educational assessment of students with visual impairments and additional disabilities including deaf-blindness. Students will practice assessing and planning educational programs for students with visual impairments. Addresses assessment of technology for students with visual impairments. Examines determination of learning needs and appropriate learning media, relationship of assessment, IEP development, and placement. Practicum requires a minimum of 25 hours. Prerequisites: passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 537. Assistive Technology for People with Sensory Impairments. 3 Credits.

This course is designed for professionals and/or students interested in serving the visually impaired/blind population or hearing impaired/deaf population. It is designed to heighten the awareness of participants to specific technology and resources available to enhance and improve the ability of individuals with visual and hearing impairments to succeed in school, daily living activities and employment. Knowledge and awareness components of this course will be delivered via distance education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400 or SPED 500 and SPED 432 or SPED 532.

SPED 540. Assistive Technology for Diverse Students. 3 Credits.

This course provides lectures for pre-service and in-service teachers, and related service providers of special populations in use of assistive technology (AT) devices and services, and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for instructional programs and computer applications. Study will involve compliance with federal and state laws, and national and state educational standards related to providing assistive technology to students with diverse learning needs. Prerequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 541. Teaching Students with Severe Physical and Sensorimotor Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course reviews techniques for working with students who have severe physical and sensorimotor disabilities. Course emphasis is on proper positioning and handling for students with atypical motor/muscle development who function at developmental levels between birth and five years. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/500 and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 560. Teaching Preschoolers With Diverse Needs. 3 Credits.

This course prepares students in developing skills in curricula, materials, and methods of instruction for preschool-aged (2-6 years) children with diverse needs. Programming for personal-social, language, motor, and cognitive development are addressed. Data collection, programmatic organization, and classroom planning are covered. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisite: SPED 400 or SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 561. Developmental/Ecological Assessment Strategies. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with the skills necessary for assessment of atypical development as well as best practices involved in assessment. Students explore and give assessments to children from birth through eight years of age or older with severe disabilities. Practicum of 45 hours required. Pre- or corequisite: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 567. Collaboration, Transitions and Infant-Family Intervention. 3 Credits.

This course prepares professionals from cross-discipline backgrounds to serve families with children who are at-risk and disabled from birth to age three. Emphasis is placed on development of IFSPs, procedures, materials, transitions, and curricula for this population. Observation of 20 hours in an infant-toddler program is required. Pre- or corequisite: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 569. Communication/Language Development/Intervention for Students with Significant Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course examines symbolic and non-symbolic communication/language development and acquisition. Emphasis is on routine-based communication training, communication/language facilitation strategies, augmentative communication systems, and informal/functional communication/language assessment procedures for students in early childhood special education, students with autism, and students with multiple disabilities. Prerequisites: a grade of C- or higher in SPED 400 or a grade of B- or higher in SPED 500.

SPED 583. Field Experience Seminar in Special Education. 1 Credit.

Prerequisites: SPED 313, SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 402/SPED 502. Explores issues, problems, concerns and processes related to teaching and entering the profession of teaching. Passing scores on the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA), Praxis II: Elementary Education Content Test, and Virginia Reading Assessment (VRA)/ Reading for Virginia Educators (RVE) will be required by the end of the course.

SPED 586. Teacher Candidate Internship for Special Endorsement. 9 Credits.

Seven weeks will be completed at the elementary level and seven weeks will be completed at the middle/secondary level. Qualifies as a CAP experience. Prerequisites: admission to ODU Teacher Education Program; completion of the approved teacher education program in the specific endorsement area; completion of SPED 583; departmental approval; passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests (or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education); passing scores on Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA), the Virginia Reading Assessment (VRA)/Reading for Virginia Educators (RVE), and the appropriate Praxis II content examination.

SPED 595. Topics in Special Education. 1-3 Credits.

This course offers selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest in the special education field. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 610. Characteristics of Students Accessing the General Curriculum. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500. The intent of this course is to provide pre-service and currently licensed teachers with(a) knowledge of the characteristics of students with disabilities who are accessing the general curriculum, K-12, including, but not limited to learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and intellectual disabilities; (b) the ability to recognize etiologies, underlying factors, and contributing conditions that impact student learning, and (c) the cultural impact of disabling conditions.

SPED 611. Instructional Strategies for Students accessing the General Education Curriculum. 3 Credits.

This course emphasizes effective research-based instructional strategies for teaching students with mild/moderate disabilities in grades K-12 who are accessing the general education curriculum. Practicum of 45 hours in middle/secondary-level setting is required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, SPED 610 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 613. Human Growth and Development. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to give a thorough overview of human development from birth through adolescence and to develop an understanding of what impact physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development may have on the student, the learning environment, and instructional decisions. This course provides an advanced overview of current research and theory in human growth and development and their applications to the classroom. Throughout the course, issues of diversity as it applies to economic, social, racial, ethnic, and religious characteristics will be explored; developmental issues related to giftedness or disability and the impact of family disruptions, child abuse, and substance abuse will be addressed within the context of each topic.

SPED 615. Behavior Change in Classroom. 3 Credits.

This course will focus on the following elements of effective management: integration of instruction for positive learning environment; strategies to provide students the opportunity to be successful academically, emotionally, and socially; assessment of and modifying the learning environment; and group and individualized strategies to affect behavior change in order to increase student learning.

SPED 618. Characteristics and Advanced Procedures: Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 3 Credits.

This course addresses characteristics and various approaches to the education and treatment of emotional/behavioral disorders. Emphasis is on group/individualized programming that addresses social, emotional, academic and behavioral needs. Behavior measurement and direct observation, problem behavior specification, intervention development and implementation, data collection and analysis, curricular adaptation, and teacher collaboration skills for successful regular classroom reintegration and transition are also discussed. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 620. Advanced Special Education Law and Ethics. 3 Credits.

This course provides in-depth research and nuanced application of federal regulations (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]; the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; Section 504; the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and the Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA]), case law, current special education legal issues, and ethical conduct for individuals seeking an advanced special education degree. This course is not suitable for individuals seeking initial licensure in special education. Prerequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 621. Effective Interventions for Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior. 3 Credits.

Students with challenging behavior pose a tremendous challenge to school personnel. Along with the growing incidence of behavior problems, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of research-supported interventions. Emphasis is on assessment of the structural and functional properties of problem behavior to facilitate development of interventions that match the nature and severity of the problem behavior. The course focuses on gaining knowledge of the likely source(s) of challenging behavior, including various strategies to document the environmental determinants of the behavior, establishment of school-wide, classroom-level, and student-specific intervention programs and ways to document the outcome of those interventions. Attention is given to adult- as well as peer-mediated intervention options for problem behavior reduction/replacement among children and youth from diverse backgrounds and across categories of exceptionality. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 411/SPED 511, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 622. Advanced Collaboration and Lifespan Transitions. 3 Credits.

This course provides students opportunities to develop advanced competencies and skills in collaborative consultation and delivery of special education services to individuals with disabilities across the continuum of educational settings and lifespan transitions. This course has applications for special education teachers, other professional educators, and related service providers.

SPED 623. Characteristics and Advanced Procedures: Intellectual Disabilities. 3 Credits.

The course examines the characteristics and various approaches to the education and treatment of students with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities. Assessment, curriculum development, instructional design, appropriate placement setting, transition and utilization of environmental resources are emphasized. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 625. Characteristics of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. 3 Credits.

This course includes a review of characteristics, etiology, prevalence, and perspectives of students with autism spectrum disorders. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 626. Characteristics and Advanced Procedures: Learning Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course provides the professional educator with a variety of educational procedures for students with learning disabilities, including diagnostic assessment, causal nature, and research based instructional strategies for teaching students with learning disabilities. This course has an applied emphasis and includes a 45-hour practical experience with students with learning disabilities. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 627. Instructional Strategies for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. 3 Credits.

This course includes a review of intervention strategies for students with autism spectrum disorders. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 628. Instructional Strategies for Students Accessing the Adapted Curriculum. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the characteristics and instructional strategies of students accessing the adapted curriculum. Emphasis is on assessment, program development, academic, and functional skills instruction. This course addresses the needs of individuals with severe and/or profound multiple disabilities. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 411/SPED 511, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 630. Teaching Preschoolers with Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to prepare students in curricula, materials and methods of instruction for preschool-aged (2 to 6 years) children with special needs. Programming for self-help, social, language, motor, and cognitive development are addressed. Data collection, program organization, and classroom planning are also covered. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 631. Developmental and Ecological Assessment Strategies. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with the skills necessary for assessment of atypical early development as well as best practices in assessing functional skills in students with severe disabilities. Students will explore and give assessments to children from birth to 6 years of age and students with severe/multiple/profound disabilities. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 633. Teaching Students with Severe Physical and Sensorimotor Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course reviews techniques for working with students who have severe physical and sensorimotor disabilities. Emphasis is on proper positioning and handling for students with atypical motor/muscle development who function at developmental levels between birth and five years. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 634. Capstone Seminar. 3 Credits.

Capstone seminar.

SPED 637. Infant/Family Intervention and Teamwork. 3 Credits.

This course prepares professionals from cross-discipline backgrounds to serve families with children who are at-risk and disabled from birth through age three. Emphasis is place on the development of the individualized family service plan (IFSP), procedures, materials and curriculum for this population. A family-centered approach is stressed. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 630, and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 638. Teaching Methods for Students with Visual Impairments. 3 Credits.

This course emphasizes methods of teaching compensatory skills, the core curriculum, and technology for use by students who are blind and visually impaired. It addresses curriculum development, adaptations, and teaching methodology for individuals with visual impairments. In addition, it provides information on adaptations within various educational programs and adaptation of general education classroom materials and procedures for use with blind and low vision children and youth. Prerequisites: passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 639. Braille Reading and Writing. 3 Credits.

This course provide basic instruction on transcription of advanced Braille codes, including: music, foreign language, chemistry, computer Braille, and Nemeth Code (Braille math code). Introduces techniques for teaching skills in each code. Explores technology tools used to create Braille and tactile materials in addition to other assistive technologies used for instruction in math and science. Practicum requires a minimum of 15 hours. Prerequisites: SPED 433/SPED 533 and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 400/SPED 500 and SPED 432/SPED 532.

SPED 640. Applied Behavior Analysis: Principles, Procedures, and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on basic principles and procedures of applied behavior analysis; identification of factors that contribute to behavioral problems and improved performance; and procedures that can be used to minimize behavioral problems, improve performance, teach new behaviors, and increase probability of behaviors occurring under appropriate circumstances. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor.

SPED 641. Applied Behavior Analysis: Empirical Bases. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on basic content of applied behavior analysis. This course teaches how to implement behavioral procedures and develop behavioral programs for clients with fundamental behavioral needs. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 640 or permission of the instructor.

SPED 642. Ethics and Professional Conduct for Behavior Analysts. 3 Credits.

This course provides a basis in Virginia Behavior Analyst Licensure law, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and Disciplinary Standards, and professional conduct consistent with the practice of applied behavior analysis. Prerequisites: SPED 640 or permission of the instructor.

SPED 643. Applied Behavior Analysis: Assessments and Interventions. 3 Credits.

This course further expands on basic content of applied behavior analysis and teaches how to implement behavioral procedures and develop behavioral programs for clients with fundamental behavioral needs. Prerequisites: SPED 640 or permission of the instructor.

SPED 644. Applied Behavior Analysis: Applications. 3 Credits.

This course expands capability to deal with more complex behavioral situations, enabling ability to relate to more sophisticated professional issues and environments. Prerequisites: SPED 640, SPED 641, and SPED 643 or consent of the instructor. Pre- or corequisite: SPED 643.

SPED 645. Applied Behavior Analysis: Verbal Behavior. 3 Credits.

This course further expands capability to deal with more complex behavioral situations, and enables students to relate to more sophisticated professional issues and environments. Prerequisites: SPED 643 or permission of the instructor.

SPED 669. Directed Field Internship Special Education, K-12. 1-6 Credits.

The course provides supervised involvement in a practicum setting where the student and the instructor work together closely to develop curricula and gain expertise in teaching specific topics of importance to special educators. 50 hours per credit. Prerequisites: appropriate graduate instructional strategies course work and passing scores on Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educator Tests or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 670. Transition and Community-Based Instruction. 3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of the role of special educators in preparing students with severe disabilities for post-secondary vocational, residential, educational, community, and recreational settings. Emphasis is placed on developing appropriate curricula, involving students and their families in planning, implementing and evaluating transition programs, and helping students to access the services needed to be successful in adult life. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 671. Positive Behavior Supports. 3 Credits.

This course is designed specifically for teachers and other professionals working with individuals who have moderate to severe disabilities, including autism, or with young children who have disabilities. It is required for endorsement in Adapted Curriculum and Early Childhood Special Education. The primary focus is upon the concepts and skills needed (a) to design, implement, and evaluate individualized behavior support programs which derive from functional behavioral assessment, (b) to use effective teaching strategies to build relevant replacement skills, (c) to facilitate generalization and maintenance of skills, (d) to incorporate prevention strategies, (e) to improve the aspects of the student’s environment that relate to the problem behavior, and (d) to incorporate, as appropriate, individually designed crisis intervention procedures Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests.

SPED 672. Curriculum and Assessment in Severe Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This is an advanced level course in the Special Education, Adapted Curriculum Course Sequence, requiring prerequisite knowledge and skills in the discipline. The course is designed to help students develop or enhance their knowledge and skills related to best practices in curriculum and assessment. It is also designed for those preparing to teach individuals with severe disabilities who need an individualized, adapted approach to the general education curriculum. Three major components of the assessment process will be addressed: (1) initial diagnosis and assessment for establishing/maintaining eligibility for services and identifying needed supports and services; (2) assessment to develop standards-based IEPs and to create meaningful, functional, academically-based curricula within an inclusive framework; and (3) assessment to evaluate student progress for the IEP, the VAAP and state and national assessment mandates. Students will plan, develop, and implement a variety of assessment and curriculum activities with target students with severe disabilities within each of the three assessment components. Applied use of assistive technology will be integrated within the course. Prerequisites: SPED 400 and SPED 500 and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests.

SPED 673. Communication and Severe Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course introduces professionals to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with severe speech and language impairments. It addresses the knowledge and skills that are needed to assess the potential AAC user, to make team decisions, to develop and implement instruction, and to evaluate the effects of instruction. The course is also aimed at motivating, building, and expanding communication, choice-making, and social interaction. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 674. Medical and Developmental Risk Factors for Children with Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course examines the nature and causes of disabling or special health conditions. It covers screening and evaluation techniques, characteristics, and educational implications. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 675. Foundations of Language and Literacy for Diverse Learners. 3 Credits.

This course provides an understanding of the development of emergent and early literacy in developmentally-typical learners and learners with complex language and learning needs, as well as the inter-relationship of language and literacy development. Emphasis will be placed on identifying effective research-based strategies for promoting and enhancing emergent literacy and early reading and writing skills for children and youth with language and intellectual disabilities and English language learners with disabilities. Field experience is required: course participants must identify an appropriate target student and engage in observation and assessment activities with that student and his/her family during the first half of the course. Final product includes the development of a literacy development plan for the student. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests.

SPED 676. Curriculum and Methods-Severe Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on current best practices in curriculum and methods for students with severe disabilities, including specific strategies for teaching students with severe disabilities, general strategies for working with heterogeneous groups of students in inclusive settings, and methods for adapting the general education curriculum to include students with severe disabilities. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 and passing scores on the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Education Tests.

SPED 677. Consultation and Collaboration. 3 Credits.

This course provides professionals in special education, regular education, and related fields with knowledge and communications skills necessary for collaborative consultation and technical assistance to other educators and service providers. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 678. Interdisciplinary Approaches for Children with Sensory/Motor Disabilities. 3 Credits.

This course emphasizes positioning, handling, and adaptive strategies for children with sensory and/or motor disabilities. It focuses on understanding the roles of related disciplines in collaborative planning and service delivery. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500.

SPED 698. Research Project. 1 Credit.

This capstone seminar is one of the culminating assessments for the master’s degree in education with a major in advanced special education. Students will design, develop, and deliver an evidence-based professional development program that is aligned with their concentrations. As a culminating activity, this project will reflect the synthesis of coursework, research, and practical experience as these program aspects relate to the needs of school divisions and the education of students from diverse backgrounds.

SPED 700. Social/Emotional Aspects of Child Development. 3 Credits.

The emphasis of this course is on the theoretical approaches to the social/emotional development of the child that include the psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, and social learning models as applied to responsive practices that promote the healthy emotional wellbeing of children.

SPED 701. Historical and Contemporary Research in Special Education. 3 Credits.

This course covers contemporary and historical topics related to problem issues in special education. This is a course of study that will enable participants to examine various topics in special education and research a position on an issue.

SPED 702. Cognitive Processes and Learning Strategies for Students with Special Needs. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide an overview of research and critical issues relative to the cognitive and affective development of individuals with disabilities. Research-based interventions that address deficits of cognitive processes will be discussed and specific learning strategies will be presented.

SPED 705. Advanced Student and Program Evaluation in Special Education. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide scholars with the advanced knowledge of systems and theories of assessment, special education evaluation and eligibility determination, and the skill competence to design and implement research activities, instruction, and student and program evaluation. Scholars will access, evaluate, and use valid formative and summative assessment and evaluation measures for monitoring and promoting student learning and educational performance. Prerequisites: FOUN 611 and SPED 701.

SPED 707. Advanced Instructional Procedures in Special Education. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with advanced skills in educational planning, development, and implementation for students with learning problems. Techniques focus on inclusive and self-contained classroom arrangements. Prerequisite: graduate standing.

SPED 714. Alternative Strategies for Secondary Students. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to provide students with an opportunity to examine and develop curriculum strategies and adaptations which may be used to meet the needs of students with diverse learning needs. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis I or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 715. Alternative Strategies for Elementary Students: Prevention and Intervention. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide pre-service and in-service teachers with the knowledge and skill to collaborate with other professionals to identify and remediate students who are at-risk for school problems due to academic challenges and/or behavior, and to effectively support students with identified mild disabilities in general education classrooms. The course focuses on developing proactive pre-referral interventions and working with general educators to develop and implement effective interventions, accommodations, modifications and supports for students with mild difficulties in general education classes. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis I or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 720. Curriculum and Instruction: Research Into Practice. 3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of research methods employed in the field of special education. Current trends related to curriculum and instruction in general and special education will be investigated. Strategies and procedures for identifying learner characteristics and application of that knowledge will be included. Implementation of quality curricular modifications and/or instructional accommodations for students with diverse needs in a variety of educational settings and evaluation of instruction will be addressed. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 or SPED 701/SPED 801.

SPED 769. Practicum in Applied Behavior Analysis. 3,6 Credits.

This course may be taken as an elective for students who complete the ABA certificate program and wish to complete the 15 total required practicum hours to sit for the National ABA Board Examination. Course can be repeated up to 5 times.

SPED 800. Social/Emotional Aspects of Child Development. 3 Credits.

The emphasis of this course is on the theoretical approaches to the social/emotional development of the child that include the psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, and social learning models as applied to responsive practices that promote the healthy emotional wellbeing of children.

SPED 801. Historical and Contemporary Research in Special Education. 3 Credits.

This course covers contemporary and historical topics related to problem issues in special education. This is a course of study that will enable participants to examine various topics in special education and research a position on an issue.

SPED 802. Cognitive Processes and Learning Strategies for Students with Special Needs. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide an overview of research and critical issues relative to the cognitive and affective development of individuals with disabilities. Research-based interventions that address deficits of cognitive processes will be discussed and specific learning strategies will be presented.

SPED 807. Advanced Instructional Procedures in Special Education. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with advanced skills in educational planning, development, and implementation for students with learning problems. Techniques focus on inclusive and self-contained classroom arrangements. Prerequisite: graduate standing.

SPED 814. Alternative Strategies for Secondary Students. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to provide students with an opportunity to examine and develop curriculum strategies and adaptations which may be used to meet the needs of students with diverse learning needs. Practicum of 45 hours required. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis I or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 815. Alternative Strategies for Elementary Students: Prevention and Intervention. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide pre-service and in-service teachers with the knowledge and skill to collaborate with other professionals to identify and remediate students who are at-risk for school problems due to academic challenges and/or behavior, and to effectively support students with identified mild disabilities in general education classrooms. The course focuses on developing proactive pre-referral interventions and working with general educators to develop and implement effective interventions, accommodations, modifications and supports for students with mild difficulties in general education classes. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500, SPED 415/SPED 515, and passing scores on Praxis I or equivalent as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

SPED 820. Curriculum and Instruction: Research Into Practice. 3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of research methods employed in the field of special education. Current trends related to curriculum and instruction in general and special education will be investigated. Strategies and procedures for identifying learner characteristics and application of that knowledge will be included. Implementation of quality curricular modifications and/or instructional accommodations for students with diverse needs in a variety of educational settings and evaluation of instruction will be addressed. Prerequisites: SPED 400/SPED 500 or SPED 701/SPED 801.

SPED 821. Critical Issues I: Readings in Special Education and Professional Writing. 3 Credits.

The intent of this course is to provide doctoral candidates an opportunity to do the following: (a) become thoroughly involved in the literature relating to current critical issues in special education, and (b) begin the process of developing writing skills suitable for positions and tenure in higher education. The course stresses APA writing guidelines and style, conducting literature searches, and beginning development of a writing product that is suitable for publication. The course provides an introduction to the skills necessary for advancement in higher education and professional institutions.

SPED 822. Critical Issues II: Research and Professional Writing. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: SPED 821. This course provides doctoral candidates an opportunity to read, analyze and synthesize research in special education with the intent to contributing to the literature. The course emphasizes skills necessary for developing writing skills suitable for positions and tenure in higher education. APA writing guidelines and style, analyzing and synthesizing research/literature, and producing a lengthy written product suitable for publication are stressed. The course is designed to build skills necessary for advancement in higher education and professional institutions.

SPED 868. Internship: Special Education. 3 Credits.

Internships in teaching, research, and other professional activities will provide experience in the roles that students will assume after completing their doctoral degrees. The successful completion of a 3-credit internship is required to fulfill program requirements and necessitates a commitment of a minimum of 150 contact hours. Internships may be at the regional, national or international levels.

SPED 869. Practicum/Field Experience. 6-12 Credits.

Supervised involvement of the doctoral-level student in a practicum setting, where the student and the instructor work together closely to develop curriculum and gain expertise in teaching specific topics of importance to early childhood educators. A weekly seminar is required.

SPED 893. Professional Seminar: Teaching, Research, and Service. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: SPED 821 and SPED 822. This course prepares doctoral candidates to meet professional standards in teaching, research and service in special education in higher education institutions. Teaching includes an understanding of adult learning and the design, delivery, evaluation of content, and use of technology in college teaching. Research includes recognizing and critically discussing scholarly work, systematically planning and preparing for research, and developing research proposals. Service includes identifying professional organizations and agencies and creating integrated professional development programs. The course is designed to build skills necessary for advancement in higher education and professional institutions.

SPED 899. Dissertation. 1-12 Credits.

Dissertation. Prerequisites: Successful defense of prospectus and admission to candidacy.

SPED 999. Doctoral Graduate Credit. 1 Credit.

This course is a pass/fail course doctoral students may take to maintain active status after successfully passing the candidacy examination. All doctoral students are required to be registered for at least one graduate credit hour every semester until their graduation.