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Old Dominion University

2014-2015 Catalog

Philosophy and Religious Studies

Yvette E. Pearson, Chair
James Van Dore, Chief Departmental Advisor
Phone: 757 683-3861
Website: http://www.odu.edu/philosophy

The Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies offers a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy, philosophy with an emphasis in political and legal studies, and philosophy with an emphasis in religious studies. The program is designed to give students a solid grounding in the historical development of philosophy and an ability to analyze the validity and soundness of arguments proposed in serious discussions of any subject. The emphasis in political and legal studies is designed for students planning to go to law school and students generally interested in social and political philosophy. The emphasis in religious studies is designed to assist the student in understanding the role of religion in human culture.

The requirements are as follows.

Bachelor of Arts–Philosophy Major

Lower Division General Education

Written Communication *6
Oral Communication3
Mathematics3
Information Literacy and Research3
Language and Culture **0-12
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Literature3
Philosophy and Ethics3
The Nature of Science8
Impact of Technology3
Human Behavior3
Total Hours41-53
*

Grade of C or better required in both courses and in ENGL 110C before declaring major.

**

BA students must have competence through the 202 level; competence is not met by completion of an associate degree.

Departmental Requirements

The requirements are a minimum of 33 credit hours in 300- and 400-level PHIL and REL courses, nine hours of which must be at the 400 level. Students must select one of the following three concentrations. (Students interested in double majoring in philosophy and political science should see below. Students interested in double majoring in philosophy and a subject other than political science should consult the chief departmental adviser; there may be some opportunity for double counting at least one class.)

General Concentration

History of Philosophy
PHIL 330WAncient Philosophy3
PHIL 331Modern Philosophy3
Additional PHIL course on 18th century or earlier philosophy *3
Logic
PHIL 340Logic I3
Recent Philosophy
Select two of the following: 6
Marx and the Marxists
American Philosophy
Technology: Its Nature and Significance
Gender and Philosophy
Twentieth Century Continental Philosophy
Contemporary Analytic Philosophy
Postmodernism and Political Philosophy
Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
Contemporary Theory of Knowledge
Philosophy of Psychology
PHIL course on 19th century or later philosophy *
Ethics and Values
Select one of the following: 3
Philosophy of Religion
Philosophy of Art
Social and Political Philosophy
Postmodernism and Political Philosophy
Foundations of Ethics
Studies in Applied Ethics
Seminar
Select one of the following: 3
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Philosophy Electives
Three PHIL electives **9
Total Hours33
*

Must be approved by the department.

**

To total at least nine hours in philosophy courses.

Students may "double count" a seminar toward their seminar requirement and either the history of philosophy or recent philosophy requirement, as appropriate. In that case, they will need to take an additional 3 hours of philosophy (PHIL) elective credit, for a total of 12. Religious Studies (REL) courses can only be counted as philosophy electives with the prior consent of the chief departmental advisor.

Political and Legal Studies Concentration

History of Philosophy
PHIL 330WAncient Philosophy3
PHIL 331Modern Philosophy3
Logic
PHIL 340Logic I3
Recent Philosophy
Select two of the following: 6
Marx and the Marxists
American Philosophy
Technology: Its Nature and Significance
Gender and Philosophy
Twentieth Century Continental Philosophy
Contemporary Analytic Philosophy
Postmodernism and Political Philosophy
Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
Contemporary Theory of Knowledge
Philosophy of Psychology
PHIL course focusing on 19th century or later philosophy *
Seminar
Select one of the following: 3
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Political and Legal Core
Select two of the following: 6
Marx and the Marxists
Social and Political Philosophy
Postmodernism and Political Philosophy
Philosophy of Law
Foundations of Ethics
Political and Legal Electives
Select two of the following:6
1-2 courses from Political and Legal Studies core
Business Ethics
Bioethics
Computer Ethics
Studies in Applied Ethics
Philosophy Elective
One PHIL course3
Total Hours33
*

Must be approved by the department.

Students may "double count" a seminar toward their seminar requirement and either the history of philosophy or recent philosophy requirement, as appropriate. In that case, they will need to take an additional 3 hours of philosophy (PHIL) elective credit, for a total of 6. Religious Studies (REL) courses can only be counted as philosophy electives with the prior consent of the chief departmental advisor.

Religious Studies Concentration

History of Philosophy 9
Ancient Philosophy
Modern Philosophy
PHIL course in 18th century or earlier philosophy *
Recent Philosophy 6
Select two of the following:
Marx and the Marxists
American Philosophy
Technology: Its Nature and Significance
Gender and Philosophy
Twentieth Century Continental Philosophy
Contemporary Analytic Philosophy
Postmodernism and Political Philosophy
Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
Contemporary Theory of Knowledge
Philosophy of Psychology
PHIL course in 19th century or later philosophy *
Seminar3
Select one of the following:
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Seminar in Philosophy
Religious Studies3
Philosophy of Religion
Religious Traditions 9
Nine hours total, with at least 3 hours from each group:
Western courses
Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
New Testament
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Eastern Courses
Asian Religions
Comparative Philosophy East and West - Personhood
Myth and Philosophy
Hinduism
Buddhism
Chinese Religion and Philosophy
Japanese Religion and Philosophy
Philosophy and Religion Elective 3
One PHIL or REL course
Total Hours33
*

Must be approved by the department.

Students may "double count" a seminar toward their seminar requirement and either the history of philosophy or recent philosophy requirement, as appropriate. In that case, they will need to take an additional 3 hours of philosophy (PHIL) or religious studies (REL) elective credit, for a total of 6.

Electives

Elective courses may be taken for the remainder of the minimum 120 credits required for the degree.

Upper Division General Education

  • Option A. Approved Minor, 12-24 hours; also second degree or second major
  • Option B. Interdisciplinary Minor, 12 hours specified by the department, 3 of which may be in the major area of study
  • Option C. International business and regional courses or an approved certification program, such as teaching licensure
  • Option D. Two Upper-Division Courses from outside the College of Arts and Letters or from the Social Science Component within the College of Arts and Letters that are not required by the major (6 hours).

Requirements for graduation include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 overall and in the major, 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours of upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University, completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, and completion of Senior Assessment.

Minors in Philosophy and Religious Studies

The requirements for minors in philosophy and religious studies are as follows:

Philosophy (General)
Twelve hours in philosophy (PHIL) courses at the 300 and 400 level12
Philosophy-Applied Ethics12
Foundations of Ethics
Select three from the following:
Business Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Bioethics
Computer Ethics
Gender and Philosophy
Social and Political Philosophy
Studies in Applied Ethics
Philosophy-Religious Studies
Select four from the following: 12
Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
New Testament
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Philosophy of Religion
Asian Religions
Comparative Philosophy East and West - Personhood
Myth and Philosophy
Hinduism
Buddhism
Chinese Religion and Philosophy
Japanese Religion and Philosophy
Philosophy-Political and Legal Studies12
Select at least two from the following:
Marx and the Marxists
Logic I
Social and Political Philosophy
Postmodernism and Political Philosophy
Philosophy of Law
Foundations of Ethics
Select from the following other options to complete a total of 12 credits:
Business Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Bioethics
Computer Ethics
Gender and Philosophy
Studies in Applied Ethics

For completion of a minor, a student must have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all courses required for the minor exclusive of lower-level courses and prerequisite courses and complete a minimum of six hours in upper-level courses in the minor requirement through courses offered by Old Dominion University.

Advanced Placement

Since the study of philosophy (and religion) involves intensive work with sophisticated texts and extensive analytical and critical writing, credit by examination is not usually appropriate. Students who believe that there are reasons why they should be considered for exceptions to this policy should present their cases in writing to the chair of the department, who, when appropriate, will refer them to the departmental committee. Generally, such things as "reading on one's own" are not considered an adequate basis for such a petition. Students who have earned credit for one of the introductory philosophy and ethics way of knowing courses (e.g., PHIL 110P, PHIL 120P, PHIL 140P, PHIL 230E, or PHIL 250E) may not receive credit by examination for another of them.

Double Majoring in Philosophy and Political Science

The departments of Political Science and Geography and Philosophy and Religious Studies have established an arrangement that makes it possible to complete a double major in as few as 55 hours, little more than the 45-49 hours needed for a major in one and minor in the other. Philosophy majors on the Political-Legal Studies track double-majoring in Political Science will be allowed to count any two of the following Political Science courses toward their philosophy major:

Select two of the following:6
Political Theory
American Political Thought
First Amendment Freedoms
American Constitutional Law and Politics I
American Constitutional Law and Politics II
Jurisprudence
Total Hours6

These courses will count as Political and Legal electives; students will still be required to take 6 hours from the Political and Legal core courses. Students doing the accelerated B.A./M.A. in Philosophy and Humanities can count no more than one 500-level Political Science course as a "bridge" course. Political Science "topics" course may also be counted as Philosophy electives when the topic covered is appropriate; prior approval is required from the chief departmental advisor of Philosophy and Religious Studies. Political Science will also double count certain Philosophy courses towards its major for double majors; see the Political Science section of this Catalog for details.

Accelerated Master of Arts in Humanities-Philosophy

By allowing exceptional philosophy majors to count up to 12 hours of graduate courses toward both an undergraduate and graduate degree, this degree program makes it possible for students with a demonstrated record of academic excellence to earn both a B.A. in philosophy and an M.A. in humanities with a concentration in philosophy in five years. For more information consult the Humanities section of this Catalog.

PHILOSOPHY Courses

PHIL 110P. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An introduction to basic concepts, methods and issues in philosophy, and a consideration of representative types of philosophical thought concerning human nature, the world, knowledge, and value.

PHIL 120P. Logic and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the principles of correct reasoning and the types of fallacious reasoning. Includes an examination of the philosophical and historical context of logic, and the application of logical methods to philosophical questions.

PHIL 126P. Honors: Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special honors section of PHIL 110P.

PHIL 127P. Honors: Introduction to Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. Scientific developments are used as an occasion for philosophical reflection. In the process the student is led to a better understanding of science. The course introduces and makes use of basic logical and conceptual tools of philosophy.

PHIL 140P. Introduction to Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

Scientific developments are used as an occasion for philosophical reflection. In the process the student is led to a better understanding of science. The course introduces and makes use of basic logical and conceptual tools of philosophy.

PHIL 227E. Honors: World Religions: Beliefs and Values. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special Honors section of PHIL 250E.

PHIL 228E. Honors: Introduction to Ethics. 3 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. A special Honors section of PHIL 230E.

PHIL 230E. Introduction to Ethics. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the study of ethics through philosophical reflection on a variety of moral issues of contemporary significance. Topics covered will vary by semester and instructor, and may include issues drawn from professional fields such as business, medicine, and information technology, plus matters of public concern like the environment, the treatment of animals, the use of military force, social justice, and civil and human rights.

PHIL 250E. World Religions: Beliefs and Values. 3 Credits.

A comparative and philosophical study of major world religions in the Eastern and Western traditions with particular attention being paid to their views about the basis of right action and the nature of good and evil. Other points of comparison include the foundations of religious knowledge and belief, the meaning of human life, divinity, and death and immortality. A student with credit for PHIL 150P cannot receive credit for PHIL 250E.

PHIL 290G. Philosophy of Digital Culture. 3 Credits.

This course provides practical training in information access, critical information assessment, and ethical information use in a theoretically-oriented research context, as well as a theoretical exploration of issues in information literacy, the ethics and politics of online informational spaces, and the philosophy of digital culture.

PHIL 303E. Business Ethics. 3 Credits.

A philosophical examination of ethical issues that arise in business and commerce. Topics discussed will vary by semester and instructor, but may include affirmative action, ethical versus unethical sales and marketing techniques, the obligations of business to society (if any), and the moral foundations of capitalism. Prerequisites: ENGL 110C.

PHIL 304. Marx and the Marxists. 3 Credits.

Learning how to understand Marxism, yesterday and today, through readings, applications, exercises for discussion and projects. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 305. American Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An examination of the writings of some of the major American philosophers such as Peirce, James, Royce, Dewey, and Whitehead. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 313. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Credits.

An analytical and critical consideration of the philosophical foundations of religion. Such topics as the existence of God, the problem of evil, theism and atheism, prayer, and immortality are discussed. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 314. Studies in Western Religious Thought. 3 Credits.

Various topics exploring religious, philosophical, and cultural themes in the traditions of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. Prerequisites: Three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 324. Philosophy of Art. 3 Credits.

A study of the various theories of art and human creativity in the context of historical and cultural backgrounds. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 330W. Ancient Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the thought of the classical Greek and Roman philosophers from the sixth century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: Junior standing, a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, and three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 331. Modern Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the thought of the major Western philosophers through the eighteenth century, including the empirical tradition of Bacon, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, the rationalistic tradition of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and the critical philosophy of Kant. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 332. Medieval Philosophy. 3 Credits.

This course examines the significant contributions of medieval philosophers to the development of philosophy of religion as well as other fields, including philosophy of language, logic, and ethics. Students examine the writings of medieval philosophers from Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions. Prerequisites: ENGL 110C.

PHIL 340. Logic I. 3 Credits.

A study of the basic concepts and methods of logic as they occur in ordinary language, formal logical arguments, and an elementary logical system. Traditional Logic is emphasized, but some elements of Modern Logic are also introduced. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 344E. Environmental Ethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of the nature and basis of human obligations for the welfare of the environment with special attention to the foundations of ethical decision making. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 345E. Bioethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of the philosophical foundations of ethical decision making in biology, medicine, and the life scineces. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C.

PHIL 353. Asian Religions. 3 Credits.

A study of religious and philosophical traditions of India, China and Japan. Primary emphasis will be given to Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 354. Comparative Philosophy East and West - Personhood. 3 Credits.

An examination of the philosophical theme "personhood" in Eastern and Western traditions. The course includes a methodology for comparative analysis, a dialogue on key issues and their application to contemporary topics from historical and contemporary religious, psychological and gender perspectives. The class samples well known positions in the Eastern and Western traditions as well as social and political contexts for the various conceptions. Prerequisites: PHIL 110P or PHIL 120P or PHIL 140P or PHIL 230E or PHIL 250E or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 355. Computer Ethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of ethical issues created, aggravated or transformed by computer technology. Theory-grounded paradigms of ethical decision making are presented with application to realistic cases. Principal topics: computer crime, privacy, cyberspace, and business applications. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 369. Practicum. 3 Credits.

The course offers three forms of practical experience for philosophy majors: Professional (for students anticipating careers in relevant professions, including philosophy); Classroom (for students anticipating graduate study and a teaching career); Civic/Social Affairs (for students interested in grassroots activism). Consult the department for details and certain specific prerequisites. (qualifies as a CAP experience) Prerequisites: junior standing; minimum of 15 credit hours in philosophy.

PHIL 383T. Technology: Its Nature and Significance. 3 Credits.

A philosophical examination of technology with special attention to its relationship with and mutual dependence upon society, culture, and human values. Historical developments and specific technologies are also covered. Prerequisites: ENGL 110C.

PHIL 395. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing or approval of the department chair.

PHIL 396. Topics in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of selected topics designed for nonmajors, or for elective credit within a major. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors. Prerequisites: Junior standing or approval of the department chair.

PHIL 402/502. Gender and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A philosophical survey of approaches to understanding gender and gender differences. The course will also serve as an introduction to feminist philosophy, with a particular emphasis on feminist ethics. Prerequisites: Junior standing and a grade of C or better in ENGL 110C and ENGL 211C, ENGL 221C, or ENGL 231C.

PHIL 404/504. Twentieth Century Continental Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of influential contemporary movements in European philosophy. Emphasis will be given to the writings of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Gadamer, Derrida, and Foucault. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 406/506. Contemporary Analytic Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the twentieth-century analytic tradition, including such thinkers as Moore, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ayer, Carnap, Ryle, Wisdom, and Austin. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 410/510. Social and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A philosophical analysis of the relation between man, society, and the state, studying about a dozen philosophers since Plato on such topics as justice, authority, law, freedom, and civil rights. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 411/511. Postmodernism and Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An examination of intellectual currents in postmodernism as they pertain to central questions in social and political thought. The course covers the roots of modernism in the Enlightenment and various challenges to modernism in 19th and 20th century thought. Particular attention is given to the prospects for democracy in postmodern thinking. Prerequisites: Three semester hours in philosophy and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 412/512. Philosophy of Law. 3 Credits.

An examination of the nature of law and philosophical issues concerning the law. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 417/517. Philosophy and Educational Issues. 3 Credits.

Considers the relationship of philosophy and education. Topics considered include: philosophy as a foundation for education, education as an institution, and educational and philosophical issues as they relate to each other. Prerequisites: Junior standing and one introductory philosophy course or a course in principles of education.

PHIL 423/523. Philosophy of Work. 3 Credits.

An examination of philosophical issues surrounding the practice of work. Topics to be discussed may include the definition of work, alienation, exploitation, whether there is a right to work or a right not to work, religious perspectives on work, and gender issues in work. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor.

PHIL 427/527. Myth and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the nature of myth, its role and importance in human thought. The analysis will stress the relationships between mythology, religion, literature, drama, and philosophy in ancient Greece. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 431/531. Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of significant intellectual innovations and revolutions in nineteenth century European thought that helped shape the modern mind. Emphasis will be given to the writings of Kant, Schopenhauer, Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 434/534. Contemporary Theory of Knowledge. 3 Credits.

This course provides students with a problem-oriented, critical, and comparative understanding of problems in contemporary epistemology. Topics include skepticism and responses thereto, analyses of knowledge, the externalist versus internalist debate, foundationalism and coherentism, and social approaches to knowledge including contextualism and feminism. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor.

PHIL 435/535. Philosophy of Psychology. 3 Credits.

An examination of various ways in which the mind has been understood in philosophy and in psychology and of the methods that have been used in the study of the mind. Prerequisites: Junior standing or permission of instructor.

PHIL 440/540. Philosophy of Natural Sciences. 3 Credits.

A study of the concepts and philosophical problems common to the natural sciences: scientific reasoning, confirmation, explanation, laws, meaning, theories, revolutions, progress, and values. Prerequisites: junior standing, three semester hours in philosophy and eight semester hours of laboratory science.

PHIL 441/541. Foundations of Ethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of the philosophical foundations of ethical inquiry. Various ethical systems are considered, and different views of metaethics and moral psychology may be as well. Prerequisites: Grade of C or better in ENGL 211C, ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C and junior standing.

PHIL 442E/542. Studies in Applied Ethics. 3 Credits.

An intensive examination of ethical issues in a particular field or profession; an emphasis on ethical theory underlying practical decisions. Prerequisites: ENGL 110C and Junior standing.

PHIL 480/580. Hinduism. 3 Credits.

An intensive study of the basic teachings of Hinduism as manifested in its sacred writings. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 481/581. Buddhism. 3 Credits.

A study of the origin, historical development, and contemporary status of Buddhism, in terms of its religious and philosophical elements and its influence in Asian cultures. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 482/582. Chinese Religion and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of Chinese thought emphasizing Early and Classical Confucianism and Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and NeoConfucianism. Modern currents of Chinese thought is also discussed. Prerequisites: Junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 485/585. Japanese Religion and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of the religious and philosophical traditions of Japan. Emphasis will be given to Shintoism, Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism and their contemporary status and influence in Japanese culture. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 491/591. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 492/592. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 493/593. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 494/594. Seminar in Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Intensive examination of the thought of one major philosopher. Prerequisites: junior standing and six semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 495/595. Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 496/596. Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which, due to their specialized nature, may not be offered regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: appropriate survey course or permission of the instructor.

PHIL 497/597. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: senior standing and approval of the department chair.

PHIL 498/598. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in Philosophy. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: senior standing and approval of the department chair.

RELIGIOUS STUDIES Courses

REL 311. Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. 3 Credits.

An investigation of the Hebrew Bible on the basis of Biblical criticism and research. Attention is given to the cultural and historical background of these writings. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

REL 312. New Testament. 3 Credits.

An investigation of New Testament literature and thought on the basis of Biblical criticism and research. Attention is given to the religious and cultural background of early Christianity, particularly in late Judaism. Prerequisites: junior standing and three semester hours in philosophy, or permission of the instructor.

REL 350. Judaism. 3 Credits.

A study of the Jewish tradition, including its primary texts, historical development, intellectual tenets, and contributions to human culture. Specific attention will be given to Judaism as a way of life. Prerequisites: three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

REL 351. Christianity. 3 Credits.

A study of the Christian tradition, including its primary texts, historical development, intellectual tenets, and contributions to human culture. Specific attention will be given to Christianity as a way of life. Prerequisites: three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

REL 352. Islam. 3 Credits.

A study of the Islamic tradition, including its primary texts, historical development, intellectual tenets, and contributions to human culture. Specific attention will be given to Islam as a way of life. Prerequisites: three semester hours in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

REL 395. Topics in Religious Studies. 3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit qualified students to work on subjects that, because of their specialized nature, may not be taught regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule booklet and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: 3 hours in PHIL or permission of the instructor.

REL 396. Topics in Religious Studies. 3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit qualified students to work on subjects that, because of their specialized nature, may not be taught regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: three hours in PHIL or REL or permission of the instructor.

REL 495/595. Topics in Religious Studies. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit qualified students to work on subjects that, because of their specialized nature, may not be taught regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: 3 hours in PHIL or REL or permission of the instructor.

REL 496/596. Topics in Religious Studies. 1-3 Credits.

The advanced study of selected topics designed to permit qualified students to work on subjects that, because of their specialized nature, may not be taught regularly. These courses will appear in the course schedule and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors. Prerequisites: three hours of PHIL or REL or permission of the instructor.

REL 497/597. Tutorial Work in Religious Studies. 1-3 Credits.

REL 498/598. Tutorial Work in Religious Studies. 1-3 Credits.

Independent reading and study of a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: permission of the instructor.