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Old Dominion University

2013-2014 Catalog

Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Rodger Harvey, Chair

John McConaugha, Chief Departmental Advisor

The Department of Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences offers an undergraduate major in Ocean and Earth science. Undergraduate majors select one of five emphases (biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, geology, Earth science education) that lead to the Bachelor of Science in Ocean and Earth science. A minor in Ocean and Earth science is also offered. Two graduate programs are offered: the Master of Science in Ocean and Earth sciences and the Doctor of Philosophy in oceanography.

The Master of Science degree in Ocean and Earth sciences has both thesis and non-thesis options. Areas of emphasis in oceanography are biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, geological oceanography, and physical oceanography. Interdisciplinary studies are encouraged. The curriculum is designed to prepare graduates for professional practice in their area of interest.

The department receives considerable support from the Commonwealth and local philanthropic sources, as well as from private industry and area citizens. Establishment of the Virginia Graduate Marine Science consortium by the General Assembly in 1979 demonstrated the Commonwealth's determination to achieve excellence in marine science. The purpose of the consortium is to advance marine science instruction, research, training, and advisory services and to enhance Virginia's position in seeking funding to carry out these activities. Charter members of the consortium ­are Old Dominion University, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and the College of William and Mary. The Samuel L. and Fay M. Slover endowment to Old Dominion University in 1986 has significantly accelerated the program of marine studies. In 1991, a Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography (CCPO) was established at Old Dominion University by the Commonwealth of Virginia. The center is a Designated Center for Excellence.

The Department of Ocean, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences is housed in two buildings. The Oceanography/Physical Sciences Building contains state-of-the-art teaching laboratories, computer facilities, and research laboratories for biological, chemical and geological oceanography. The Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography is located in the Research I building and houses all of the department's physical oceanography laboratories. The department maintains a 55-foot research vessel, the R/V Fay Slover, primarily for estuarine and coastal studies. In addition to the Slover, the department has a number of small boats, suitable for near shore investigations.

Bachelor of Science—Ocean and Earth Science Major

John McConaugha, Advisor

Students in the Ocean and Earth science program focus on global systems that control environmental conditions on the planet. They also learn to develop solutions to complex environmental problems by working in interdisciplinary teams. All majors in the department complete courses in the basic sciences and mathematics, core courses in Earth systems science, and a capstone field research experience. In addition, students complete a suite of specialty courses according to one of the following emphases. A minimum grade of C or higher in all major and prerequisite courses is required for graduation.

Oceanography Emphasis

The oceanography emphasis is designed for students considering graduate work or employment in the pure and applied fields of oceanography. Students select specialty courses in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, or physical oceanography. If students select the biological subdiscipline, they are strongly encouraged to minor in biology and select 12 credits from 300/400 level biology courses. If students select the chemical subdiscipline, they are strongly encouraged to minor in chemistry and select the following courses: CHEM 211-213, 212-214, 321 and 322. If students select the physical subdiscipline, they are strongly encouraged to minor in applied mathematics and select the following courses: MATH 312, 316, 317 and 401.

Geology Emphasis

The geology emphasis is designed for students with a wide range of professional goals in the sciences, engineering, business, and the arts. Students considering graduate work or employment in pure and applied fields of geology, including environmental geology, geological oceanography, hydrogeology, geophysics, and geochemistry, should build their backgrounds to support certification as a professional geologist (see later information). Students with a strong interest in geological applications of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing tools should consider the geology emphasis with a minor in geography; the certificate program in spatial analysis of coastal environments (see later description) also emphasizes this area of study.

Earth Science Education Emphasis

The Earth science education endorsement option is designed for students preparing to teach Earth science in secondary schools. This program meets the requirements for teacher licensure in Virginia as established by the Virginia Board of Education licensure regulations.

Requirements for all Emphasis Areas

Lower Division General Education

Composition (grade of C or better required in both courses)6
Oral Communication
Met in the major by
Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I
Communicating Ocean Science to Informal Audiences
Mathematics4
Calculus I (required)
Language and Culture0-6
Information Literacy and Research3
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Literature3
Philosophy and Ethics3
The Nature of Science8
Foundations of Chemistry I Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry I Laboratory (required)
Foundations of Chemistry II Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry II Laboratory (required)
Impact of Technology0-3
PK-12 Instructional Technology (for earth science education track)
Human Behavior3
Total Hours36-45

Students must select one of the following options:

Course Requirements – Biological Oceanography Emphasis

BIOL 115N
  & BIOL 116N
General Biology I
   and General Biology II
8
OEAS 111NPhysical Geology4
MATH 212Calculus II4
OEAS 306Oceanography3
PHYS 231N
  & PHYS 232N
University Physics
   and University Physics
8
STAT 310Introductory Data Analysis3
or STAT 330 An Introduction to Probability and Statistics
OEAS 310Global Earth Systems3
OEAS 406Matlab1
OEAS 440Biological Oceanography4
BIOL 292Evolution3
BIOL 415Marine Ecology3
or OEAS 451 Data Collection and Analysis in Oceanography
CHEM 211Organic Chemistry Lecture3
CHEM 212Organic Chemistry Laboratory2
CHEM 213Organic Chemistry Lecture3
CHEM 441Biochemistry Lecture3
Select two of the following electives:6
Aquatic Pollution
Environmental Physiology of Marine Animals
Chemical Oceanography
Global Environmental Change
Hydrogeology
OEAS 441
  & OEAS 442W
Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I
   and Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study II (satisfies oral and upper-division written communication requirement)
6
Total Hours67

Course Requirements – Chemical Oceanography Emphasis

BIOL 115N
  & BIOL 116N
General Biology I
   and General Biology II
8
OEAS 111NPhysical Geology4
MATH 212Calculus II4
OEAS 306Oceanography3
PHYS 231N
  & PHYS 232N
University Physics
   and University Physics
8
STAT 310Introductory Data Analysis3
or STAT 330 An Introduction to Probability and Statistics
OEAS 310Global Earth Systems3
OEAS 406Matlab1
OEAS 410Chemical Oceanography4
CHEM 211
  & CHEM 213
Organic Chemistry Lecture
   and Organic Chemistry Lecture
6
CHEM 331
  & CHEM 333
Physical Chemistry Lecture
   and Physical Chemistry Lecture
6
CHEM 332WExperimental Physical Chemistry I2
or CHEM 452 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory
CHEM 351Inorganic Chemistry3
Select two of the following electives:6
Aquatic Pollution
Global Environmental Change
Environmental Geochemistry
Chemical Limnology
OEAS 441
  & OEAS 442W
Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I
   and Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study II (satisfies oral and upper-division written communication requirement.)
6
Total Hours67

Course Requirements – Physical Oceanography Emphasis

BIOL 115N
  & BIOL 116N
General Biology I
   and General Biology II
8
OEAS 111NPhysical Geology4
MATH 212Calculus II4
PHYS 231N
  & PHYS 232N
University Physics
   and University Physics
8
STAT 310Introductory Data Analysis3
or STAT 330 An Introduction to Probability and Statistics
OEAS 306Oceanography3
OEAS 310Global Earth Systems3
OEAS 405Physical Oceanography3
OEAS 406Matlab1
OEAS 415Waves and Tides3
OEAS 432Introduction to Thermo- and Fluid Dynamics for Oceanographers3
OEAS 433Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics3
OEAS 451Data Collection and Analysis in Oceanography3
GEOG 402Geographic Information Systems3
or GEOG 404 Digital Techniques for Remote Sensing
MATH 307Ordinary Differential Equations3
or MATH 280 Transfer Credit for Ordinary Differential Equations
PHYS 319Analytical Mechanics3
STAT 437Applied Regression Analysis3
OEAS 441
  & OEAS 442W
Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I
   and Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study II (satisfies oral and upper-division written communication requirement.)
6
Total Hours67

Course Requirements – Geology Emphasis 

BIOL 115NGeneral Biology I4
BIOL 116NGeneral Biology II3-4
or OEAS 303 Paleontology
OEAS 111N
  & OEAS 112N
Physical Geology
   and Historical Geology
8
MATH 212Calculus II4
PHYS 231N
  & PHYS 232N
University Physics
   and University Physics
8
STAT 310Introductory Data Analysis3
or STAT 330 An Introduction to Probability and Statistics
OEAS 306Oceanography3
OEAS 310Global Earth Systems3
OEAS 313Mineralogy3
OEAS 314Petrology4
OEAS 344WGeomorphology3
OEAS 320Sedimentology and Stratigraphy4
OEAS 406Matlab1
OEAS 411Structural Geology4
OEAS 420Hydrogeology3
or OEAS 430 Introduction to Geophysics
Select one of the following:3
Paleontology
Internship in Ocean and Earth Sciences
Aquatic Pollution
Introductory Soils
Global Environmental Change
Environmental Geochemistry
Waves and Tides
Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments
Hydrogeology
Introduction to Geophysics
Sedimentary Petrology
Quaternary Geology
OEAS 441
  & OEAS 442W
Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I
   and Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study II (satisfies oral and upper-division written communication requirement.)
6
Total Hours67-68

Elective Credit

Elective credit may be needed to meet the minimum requirement of 120 credit hours.

Upper Division General Education

Completion of the professional education courses for Earth science majors satisfies this requirement.

  • Option A. Approved Disciplinary Minor (a minimum of 12 hours determined by the department), or second degree or second major.

  • Option B: Interdisciplinary Minor (specifically 12 hours, 3 of which may be in the major)

  • Option C. International Business and Regional Courses or an approved Certification Program such as teaching licensure

  • Option D. Two Upper-Division Courses from outside the College of Sciences and not required by the major (6 hours)

Requirements for graduation in all options listed above except Earth science education include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 overall and in the major with a grade of C or better in all major and prerequisite courses, 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours in upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University, completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, and completion of Senior Assessment. Requirements for Earth science are noted under course requirements for Earth science education.

Earth Science Education Emphasis

Due to changing University requirements, national accreditation standards, and the Virginia Board of Education licensure regulations, the teacher preparation programs in the College of Sciences are under constant revision. Any changes resulting from these factors supersede the program requirements described in this Catalog. Students are encouraged to obtain current program information from their advisors and the Teacher Education Services website at www.odu.edu/tes.

Admission

Students must first declare the Ocean and Earth science major, Earth science education track with the chief departmental advisor. All students must apply for and be admitted into the approved earth science teacher preparation program. Students must meet the required criteria for admission by passing the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments and earn the minimum required grade point averages (GPA).

Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments:

  • A passing PRAXIS I composite score of 532 or

  • Qualifying SAT or ACT test scores or

  • PRAXIS I Math test score of 178 and a composite Virginia Communication and Literacy (VCLA) score of 470 or

  • SAT Mathematics test score of 530 and a composite Virginia Communication and Literacy (VCLA) score of 470 or

  • ACT Mathematics test score of 22 and a composite Virginia Communication and Literacy (VCLA) score of 470

To review more information on the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments, visit the Teacher Education Services website, www.odu.edu/tes.

Required grade point averages (GPA):

  • A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required.

  • A major/content GPA of 2.75 is required - all Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences courses and all other science and mathematics content courses must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher.

  • A professional education GPA of 2.75 is required – all professional education courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher.

Although students may enroll in a limited number of education courses, students must be admitted into the approved earth science teacher preparation program prior to enrolling in any instructional strategies practicum education course. Students must also meet with an education advisor in the Office of Teacher Education Services.

Continuance

Students must maintain a cumulative GPA of 2.75, a major/content GPA of 2.75 and a professional education GPA of 2.75. Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences content courses must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher. Courses in the professional education core must be completed with a grade of C- or higher for continuance. A professional education GPA of 2.75 is required for continuance. Students must take and pass the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) and the PRAXIS II Earth Science Content examination prior to or while enrolled in the instructional strategies course. All assessments must be passed prior to the start of the Teacher Candidate Internship Orientation session.

Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments:

  • Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) – a passing composite score of 470 is required on this reading and writing assessment

  • PRAXIS II Earth Science: Content Knowledge (test code: 0571) – passing score of 156 is required

To review more information on the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments visit the Teacher Education Services website, www.odu.edu/tes.

Graduation

Requirements for graduation include completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, completion of the Senior Assessment, a minimum cumulative 2.75 GPA, in the major area, and in the professional education core, with no grade less than a C in the major and C- in the professional education core; successful completion of the Teacher Candidate Internship and a minimum of 123 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 31 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours in upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University. Note that a C (2.0) must be earned in all Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences courses used to satisfy departmental requirements.

Course Requirements – Earth Science Education Emphasis

BIOL 115NGeneral Biology I4
STAT 310Introductory Data Analysis3
or STAT 330 An Introduction to Probability and Statistics
PHYS 111N
  & PHYS 112N
Introductory General Physics
   and Introductory General Physics
8
OEAS 111NPhysical Geology4
OEAS 112NHistorical Geology4
OEAS 306Oceanography3
OEAS 310Global Earth Systems3
OEAS 303Paleontology3
OEAS 313Mineralogy3
OEAS 314Petrology4
OEAS 344WGeomorphology3
OEAS 443General Meteorology3
PHYS 408Astronomy for Teachers3
OEAS 441
  & OEAS 442W
Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I
   and Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study II (satisfies oral and upper-division written requirement.)
6
or
Communicating Ocean Science to Informal Audiences
   and Communicating Ocean Science to Informal Audiences (an alternative to OEAS 441-442W for the Earth science education emphasis; satisfies oral communication requirement)
Total Hours54

The Professional Education core courses and requirements are as follows:

TLED 301Foundations and Introduction to Assessment of Education3
TLED 360Classroom Management and Discipline2
TLED 408Reading and Writing in Content Areas3
TLED 430PK-12 Instructional Technology (satisfies impact of technology requirement)3
STEM 454Developing Instructional Strategies for Teaching in the Middle/High School: Science3
TLED 483Seminar in Teacher Education (corequisite with STEM 454)1
TLED 485Teacher Candidate Internship12
SPED 313Fundamentals of Human Growth and Development: Birth through Adolescence3
SPED 406Students with Diverse Learning Needs in the General Education Classroom3
Total Hours33

Practicum Experiences

Students majoring in Ocean and Earth science have the chance to participate in a practicum—a hands-on course-length experience that closely ties their classroom learning with "real life." All students must complete OEAS 441/OEAS 442W, Field Study (or OEAS 444-OEAS 445 for earth science education track students). In addition, Earth science education track students must complete TLED 485 which places them in science classrooms in secondary schools. All students may complete an internship (OEAS 368) with a municipal, state, or federal government agency, a non-governmental organization, or a business. In addition, Honors students may develop a senior research project in OEAS 487.

Honors Program in Ocean and Earth Science

Students admitted by the faculty to the Ocean and Earth science honors program engage in supervised individual study in areas of their interest. Honors students must complete all courses required by the department with a minimum grade point average of 3.50 and a total of at least three credits in one of the following courses:

OEAS 487Honors Research in Ocean and Earth Sciences1-3
OEAS 488Honors Research in Ocean and Earth Sciences1-3
OEAS 497Special Problems and Research1-3

Professional Geologist Certification

Ocean and Earth science graduates who work for several years as geologists and then pass a national standardized test can be certified as a Professional Geologist by the Commonwealth of Virginia or other states. The standardized tests commonly cover the following topics (listed ­in order of emphasis on the test): Research, Field Methods, and Communications; Structural Geology; Hydrogeology; Sedimentology/Stratigraphy; Petrology; Geomorphology; Engineering Geology; Mineralogy; Geophysics; Paleontology; Geochemistry; Mining Geology; and Petroleum Geology.

Credit by Examination

Students with prior training or experience may receive credit for three hours of OEAS 111N by passing the DANTES Physical Geology exam. Both tests are administered by the Testing Center. Because OEAS 111N is a four credit course students must also complete a physical geology laboratory course (one credit) in order to use this advanced placement credit. Interested students should contact the chief departmental advisor about this course. Students may also refer to the Policy on Experiential Learning Credit Options at the Undergraduate Level found in this Catalog.

Ocean and Earth Science Minor

Juniors and seniors with declared majors in biology, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, engineering, mathematics or physics are eligible to enter the minor program in ocean and Earth science. Specific course prerequisites will be strictly enforced and students with majors in other disciplines should consult with the OEAS chief departmental advisor before applying to the program. Applicants must have already declared a major and have a minimum GPA of 2.00. Students wishing to pursue a minor in Ocean and Earth science may elect to emphasize any aspect of biological, chemical, physical or geological science from course offerings available to OEAS majors, and must complete 12 credit hours of OEAS coursework at the 300 and/or 400 level. The following courses do not satisfy the minor requirements: OEAS 302, 402, 426, and 443.

Students must receive a C or better in each course taken for the minor including prerequisites, and a minimum of six credit hours must be completed at Old Dominion University.

Certificate in Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments (Undergraduate and Graduate)

The certificate in spatial analysis of coastal environments provides an interdisciplinary program for students wishing to pursue careers in coastal management or research, remote sensing, or geographic information systems (GIS) applications. Rendered upon completion of the requirements, the certificate is an academic affidavit comprised of courses in geography and ocean and earth science and is administered by the two departments. Students must take courses in the areas listed below and complete them with a cumulative GPA of 3.00 or higher and no grade below a C (2.00). The certificate is available to postgraduate professionals who meet the requirements. Students with comparable professional experience may be able to show competence in selected courses through examination.

Students seeking undergraduate certification complete the 400-level courses, and those seeking graduate certification complete the 500-level courses.

Core Courses
GEOG 404/504Digital Techniques for Remote Sensing3
Select one of the following:3
Wetland Plants
Principles of Plant Ecology
Structural Geology
Interpretive Analysis Courses6
Select two three-credit courses from the following:
Geographic Information Systems
Coastal Geography
Applied Cartography/GIS
Special Topics
Topics in Geography
Capstone Seminar3
Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments
Total Hours15

OCEAN, EARTH & ATMOSPHERIC SCI Courses

OEAS 106N. Introductory Oceanography. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 2 hours; 4 credits each semester. This course emphasizes geology and chemistry covering the formation and constitution of the earth and the ocean basins. Laboratory emphasizes practice of basic scientific methods. Knowledge of the metric system, scientific notation, ratio and proportion, and graphing is required. Field trip required.

OEAS 108N. Understanding Global Climate Change. 4 Credits.

Lecture, 3 hours; Lab, 2 hours. 4 credits. What is the science behind global climate change? How reliable are forecasts of future global warming? This course examines these questions to evaluate the likelihood and potential severity of anthropogenic climate change in the coming centuries. It includes an overview of the physics of the greenhouse effect, an overview of the global carbon cycle and its role as a global thermostat; an examination of predictions and reliability of model forecasts of future climate change; and examination of local impacts of global climate change (e.g., sea level rise in the Tidewater area).

OEAS 110N. Earth Science. 4 Credits.

This is an introductory course in geological sciences. The course relates the principles of natural science to Earth as a planet, its resources, and its environment. The effects of geologic processes on the environment are stressed. A student receiving credit for OEAS 110N cannot receive credit for OEAS 111N.

OEAS 111N. Physical Geology. 4 Credits.

This course introduces the student to the study of the materials, structures, and processes of the Earth. Present terrestrial resources are interpreted in terms of the internal and surface processes that formed them. A student receiving credit for OEAS 111N cannot receive credit for OEAS 110N.

OEAS 112N. Historical Geology. 4 Credits.

The evolution of the continents, ocean basins, mountain chains, and the major life forms throughout Earth's history are studied chronologically and are related to the physical and biological changes that have caused them. Prerequisite: OEAS 110N or OEAS 111N.

OEAS 126N. Honors: Introductory Oceanography. 4 Credits.

Open only to students in the Honors College. Special honors section of OEAS 106N. In addition to broad coverage of the geology, chemistry, physics and biology of the ocean, students will read scientific papers with current environmental problems. There will be several field trips to nearby ecosystems.

OEAS 195. Topics. 1 Credit.

Special topics in physical, geological, chemical or biological oceanography.

OEAS 196. Topics. 1 Credit.

Special topics in phsical, geological, chemical, or biological oceanography.

OEAS 210. Environmental Earth Science. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 2 hours; 4 credits. Dynamic processes of the land, ocean, and atmosphere and how they affect people. Topics include plate tectonics; rocks and minerals; soil and water; weather and climate; tides and currents; limits to natural resources. OEAS 210 is a required course for the IDS program in Early Childhood Education. Does not satisfy OEAS major degree requirements.

OEAS 295. Special Topics. 3 Credits.

An investigation of a selected problem in physical, geological, chemical, or biological oceanography. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.

OEAS 302. Environmental Geology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing and an 8-hour sequence in a General Education science course. Geologic resources and processes that limit human activities and pose significant hazards. Does not satisfy OEAS major degree requirements.

OEAS 303. Paleontology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 2 hours; laboratory 2 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 112N. Concepts of paleontology and application of paleontological data to problems in other scientific fields are discussed. Major invertebrate phyla represented in the fossil record are studied. Laboratory work includes preparation techniques and study of representative examples of important fossil types.

OEAS 306. Oceanography. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 211, BIOL 115N, CHEM 121N-122N, OEAS 111N, and PHYS 111N or 231N. General survey of physical, geological, chemical and biological oceanography. The application of skills from mathematics, geology, physics, biology and chemistry for the solution of oceanographic problems.

OEAS 310. Global Earth Systems. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 115N, CHEM 121N-122N, MATH 211, and OEAS 111N. Core course for ocean and earth sciences majors that examines the processes linking the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere into an interactive system.

OEAS 313. Mineralogy. 3 Credits.

Lecture 2 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 121N-122N. Corequisite: PHYS 111N or 231N. The concepts of mineralogy are developed on the basics of geometrical, crystallographic, chemical bonding, crystal structures, and physical and optical properties. Mineral associations and genesis will be emphasized. Laboratory exercises include mineral identification by physical and optical properties, X-ray diffraction, and crystal form.

OEAS 314. Petrology. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 4 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 313. The study of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic petrology is developed using the concepts of crystal growth, phase equilibria, mineral associations, and composition of the Earth's crust and mantle. Laboratory exercises include hand specimen, microscopic, and X-ray diffraction identification and origin of rocks.

OEAS 320. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 4 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 110N or 111N. The origin, transport, and deposition of sediments with emphasis on interpretation of sediment sequences, principles and methods of correlation. Laboratory exercises involve field sampling, textural analyses, and sedimentary structures. Field trip required.

OEAS 344W. Geomorphology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 2 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: OEAS 112N, 314 or 320 AND either ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C with a grade of C or better; or permission of instructor. Geologic processes that shape the earth's surface. Laboratory studies involve interpretation of topographic maps, soil maps, and aerial photographs. Field trip required.

OEAS 367. Cooperative Education. 1-3 Credits.

1-3 credits. Prerequisites: junior standing and permission of the department. Available for pass/fail grading only. Student participation for credit based on the academic relevance of the work experience, criteria, and evaluative procedures as formally determined by the department and the Career Management program prior to the semester in which the experience is to take place. (qualifies as a CAP experience).

OEAS 368. Internship in Ocean and Earth Sciences. 1-3 Credits.

Available for pass/fail grading only. Students gain on the job work experience related to their undergraduate curriculum. Prerequisites: junior standing, permission of department and a 3.00 grade point average. (qualifies as a CAP experience).

OEAS 369. Practicum. 1-3 Credits.

1-3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing, permission of department and must have declared ocean and earth sciences major or minor. (qualifies as a CAP experience).

OEAS 395. Selected Topics. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: completion of 8 hours of a laboratory science. A nonmathematical course based on topics such as urban geology, urban biometeorology, and intelligent life in the universe. Specific topics will be announced each semester.

OEAS 402/502. Field Experiences in Oceanography for Teachers. 3 Credits.

Lecture 2 hours; field experience 2 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: background in K-12 Education. Field and laboratory experiences in oceanography including hands-on experience using equipment and methods suitable for middle and secondary education professionals. Course will provide understanding of oceanic processes using simple field and laboratory experiments. Not available for credit for OEAS majors and minors.

OEAS 403W/503. Aquatic Pollution. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C and at least two semesters of one of the following: BIOL 115N-116N, CHEM 121N-122N and CHEM 123N-124N, OEAS 111N-112N, PHYS 111N-112N, OEAS 106N-107N or 126N-127N. This course will present basic ecological principles relevant to water pollution and toxicology. Topics will cover runoff, eutrophication, sewage treatment, industrial waste, oil pollution, pesticides, and plastics in the sea. Case studies provide focal points for consideration of issues in making decisions and setting policy. (This is a writing intensive course.).

OEAS 404/504. Environmental Physiology of Marine Animals. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing; upper level biology courses. Functional morphology and physiological aspects of growth and ecological energetics of marine animals. Basic concepts and habitat comparisons.

OEAS 405/505. Physical Oceanography. 3 Credits.

Physics of the ocean: properties of seawater and their distribution; water mass formation; mass and energy flows; waves; tides; models; estuarine and coastal processes. An elective for science and engineering majors. Prerequisites: C or better in MATH 211 and either PHYS 232N or two semesters of hydraulics.

OEAS 406/506. Matlab. 1 Credit.

This course is designed to introduce students to Matlab programming and to develop skills utilizing this program for data analysis Prerequisites: C or better in MATH 211 or permission of instructor.

OEAS 408/508. Introductory Soils. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 2 hours; 4 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 121N-122N and CHEM 123N-124N. Nature and properties of soils. Physical and chemical processes in soils and their influence on plant growth, the movement of water, and pollutants. Importance of soil properties in determining urban, industrial and agricultural uses.

OEAS 410/510. Chemical Oceanography. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 4 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 121N-122N and CHEM 123N-124N, OEAS 306 or consent of instructor. Chemical composition of the ocean and the chemical, biological, geological and physical processes controlling it. Laboratory experiments include determination of salinity, oxygen, and nutrients, and a field sampling trip is undertaken.

OEAS 411/511. Structural Geology. 4 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; laboratory 2 hours; 4 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 320 or permission of instructor. Recognition, habitat, and origin of deformed geologic structures. Relationships between structural patterns and tectonic settings. Laboratory sessions emphasize cartographic and stereographic projections, map interpretation, and hand sample evaluation. Weekend field trip required.

OEAS 412/512. Global Environmental Change. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: OEAS 306 and 310. An examination of the development of the earth as a habitable planet, from its origin to human impacts on global biogeochemical cycles on land, and in the oceans and atmosphere.

OEAS 413/513. Environmental Geochemistry. 3 Credits.

Low temperature geochemistry of surface and near-surface materials and processes. Weathering and the geochemical cycle as influenced by environment. Prerequisites: CHEM 121N-CHEM 122N and CHEM 123N-CHEM 124N and OEAS 313.

OEAS 415/515. Waves and Tides. 3 Credits.

Causes, nature, measurement and analysis of water waves and tides. Mathematical and graphical application to wave and tide problems. Prerequisites: C or better in MATH 212 and PHYS 232N or permission of the instructor.

OEAS 416/516. Electronics and Oceanographic Instrumentation. 4 Credits.

Lecture/Lab, 3 hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 232N or 112N, OEAS 306, OEAS 310, STAT 310 or STAT 330. The course will consist of brief lectures and hands-on laboratory exercises, in which students will learn to build, use, and debug electronic devices relevant to ocean and earth science applications. Topics covered will include circuit theory, power supplies and budgets, transducers and amplifiers, computerized data acquisition, instrument control, signal conditioning and resolution.

OEAS 418/518. Chemical Limnology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 306. Chemical cycling in lakes and reservoirs, and interactions with biological and physical processes; quantitative modeling of lake geochemistry.

OEAS 419/519. Spatial Analysis of Coastal Environments. 3 Credits.

Lecture 1.5 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: GEOG 404/504. The course integrates remotely sensed and field techniques for scientific investigation and practical management of coastal environmental systems. Spatial modeling of coastal processes and management tools using geographic information system (GIS).

OEAS 420/520. Hydrogeology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 2 hours; laboratory 2 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: OEAS 320, MATH 211, PHYS 111N-112N or 231N-232N, or permission of the instructor. Topics covered will include the occurrence and movement of surface and subsurface water, the nature and distribution of permeable rocks and strata, field techniques used in ground-water studies, and the flow of ground-water to wells.

OEAS 426/526. Concepts in Oceanography for Teachers. 3 Credits.

3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing or permission of the instructor. This web-based course will provide a practical introduction to oceanography for earth science teachers. It is particularly aimed at current science teachers attempting to become certified in earth science education. Topics will include discussions of geological, biological, physical and chemical oceanography. Not available for credit for OEAS majors and minors.

OEAS 430/530. Introduction to Geophysics. 3 Credits.

3 cr. Lecture. Prerequisites: OEAS 111N, MATH 211, and PHYS 111N/112N or PHYS 231N/232N. Introduction to the physics of the earth, including plate tectonics, volcanism, earthquakes and seismology, gravity, the Earth's magnetic field, geophysical remote sensing, and mantle convection.

OEAS 431/531. Sedimentary Petrology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 2 hours; laboratory 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 320. The chemical aspects of sediments and sedimentary rock needed for modern geologic and oceanographic studies. Optical petrology and x-ray diffraction are emphasized in the laboratory with particular attention to clay mineralogy. Field trip required.

OEAS 432. Introduction to Thermo- and Fluid Dynamics for Oceanographers. 3 Credits.

Lecture, 3 hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 211, 212, PHYS 231N and 232N. The objective of this course is to impart the basic knowledge of thermo- and fluid dynamics required to understand these concepts and theories in physical oceanography.

OEAS 433. Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. 3 Credits.

Lecture, 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 432. An introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics. The course is concerned with the fundamentals of the dynamics of ocean flows.

OEAS 440/540. Biological Oceanography. 4 Credits.

Marine organisms and their relationship to physical and chemical processes in the ocean. Laboratory study of local marine organisms, marine ecosystem and sampling techniques. Includes identification, data analysis and field trips. Prerequisite: OEAS 106N, OEAS 126N or OEAS 306.

OEAS 441. Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study I. 3 Credits.

Interdisciplinary investigation of selected sites in Southeast Virginia that includes field sampling, sample analyses, data interpretation and integration, and group report preparation and presentations. Focuses on site selection and evaluation mapping, sampling, and sample analyses. Oral presentations of results will be made by each student. Prerequisites: OEAS 306 and OEAS 310; CHEM 123N and CHEM 124N, BIOL 116N, or OEAS 303; PHYS 112N or PHYS 232N; MATH 212; all prerequisite courses must be passed with a C or better grade.

OEAS 442W. Ocean and Earth Sciences Field Study II. 3 Credits.

Lecture 1 hour; laboratory 4 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisites: a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C; OEAS 441. Interdisciplinary investigation of selected sites in Southeast Virginia that includes field sampling, sample analyses, data interpretation and integration, and group report preparation and presentations. Focuses on site selection and evaluation mapping, sampling, and sample analyses. Oral presentations of results will be made by each student. (This is a writing intensive course.).

OEAS 443. General Meteorology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing. Structure of the atmosphere; air masses, fronts, and cyclones; ice and water precipitation; hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms; introduction to modern weather forecasting; weather modification and air pollution. Required for earth science track; not available as OEAS upper-division elective.

OEAS 444. Communicating Ocean Science to Informal Audiences. 3 Credits.

This course provides Earth Science Education students with instruction on presenting scientific information to informal audiences (K through adult). The course provides techniques and practical experience in designing informal lessons. For Earth Science Education track students, OEAS 444 and OEAS 445 can replace OEAS 441/OEAS 442W. It is available as an elective for all other students. Prerequisites: OEAS 306 and OEAS 310.

OEAS 445. Communicating Ocean Science to Informal Audiences. 3 Credits.

This course provides Earth Science Education students with instruction on presenting scientific information to informal audiences (K through adult). Students will develop more in-depth presentations and extended practice presenting their materials on the Virginia Aquarium floor. For Earth Science Education track students, OEAS 444 and OEAS 445 can replace OEAS 441/OEAS 442W. It is available as an elective for all other students. Prerequisite: OEAS 444.

OEAS 446/546. Quaternary Geology. 3 Credits.

3 cr. Lecture. Prerequisite: OEAS 344W. Geological effects of Cenozoic climate changes and tectonic movements on marine and terrestrial systems. Weekend field trips to study landscapes and deposits in the coastal plain and Appalachian provinces.

OEAS 448/548. Population Ecology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 211. This course uses conceptual and mathematical models to understand how populations grow and persist in space and time. Both plants and animals are discussed.

OEAS 451/551. Data Collection and Analysis in Oceanography. 3 Credits.

This course introduces the student to basic oceanographic tools used to obtain and analyze information. The student will use various oceanographic instruments to obtain data at different locations in the Chesapeake Bay. Data obtained with these instruments will be processed and analyzed using the data analysis techniques discussed in class. The data will then be used to answer a particular question related to the temporal and spatial variability in a natural system. Prerequisites: OEAS 306 or OEAS 310 and MATH 211 and MATH 212.

OEAS 455/555. Introduction to Geomicrobiology. 3 Credits.

Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits. Prerequisite: OEAS 303. This course explores microorganisms in marine environments and their role in the fossil record. Students will examine bacteria and protista and investigate Earth's history during the Precambrian. One field trip.

OEAS 487. Honors Research in Ocean and Earth Sciences. 1-3 Credits.

Supervised study in a field of individual interest. Research results are reported in a public oral presentation and a thesis. Prerequisite: senior standing and admission to the Academic Honors Program.

OEAS 488. Honors Research in Ocean and Earth Sciences. 1-3 Credits.

Supervised study in a field of individual interest. Research results are reported in a public oral presentation and a thesis. Prerequisite: senior standing and admission to the Academic Honors Program.

OEAS 495/595. Special Topics. 4 Credits.

Lectures, field and laboratory studies; 1-4 credits each semester. Prerequisites: junior standing and permission of the instructor. An investigation of a selected problem in physical, geological, chemical, or biological oceanography.

OEAS 497. Special Problems and Research. 1-3 Credits.

1-3 credits. Prerequisite: junior standing. Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected with the direction of an instructor.