[ skip to content ]

Old Dominion University

2014-2015 Catalog

Biological Sciences

Wayne Hynes, Chair

The Department of Biological Sciences offers a broad selection of course offerings. The undergraduate curriculum is based on a two-semester foundations course and five core courses that provide a well-rounded introduction to the major subdisciplines of biology. The elective courses allow students to explore multiple facets of the biological sciences or to deepen their understanding of a single subdiscipline.

Many of our students tailor their undergraduate degrees for entry into professional and graduate schools. The department has an excellent program in secondary science education for those desiring to teach, an outstanding pre-health track for students interested in the medical professions, and the combination of academic and research opportunities necessary to best prepare students for research-based graduate studies.

Bachelor of Science—Biology Major

Written Communication *6
English Composition (required)
Introduction to Technical Writing (required)
Oral Communication3
Public Speaking
Voice and Diction
Introduction to Interpersonal Communication
Mathematics3
Precalculus I (required)
Language and Culture0-6
Information Literacy & Research3
Introduction to Information Literacy and Research for Scientists (required)
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Literature3
Philosophy and Ethics3
The Nature of Science (select one of the following)8
Introductory General Physics
   and Introductory General Physics
Earth Science
   and Historical Geology
Physical Geology
   and Historical Geology
Impact of Technology3
Human Behavior3
Departmental Requirements **
BIOL 121N
  & BIOL 122N
General Biology I
   and General Biology I Lab
4
BIOL 123N
  & BIOL 124N
General Biology II
   and General Biology II Lab
4
Total Hours49-55
*

 Grade of C or better required in both courses

**

Must be passed with a C (2.0) or better to continue in the program.

Upon completion of BIOL 121NBIOL 122N/BIOL 123NBIOL 124N   students must complete the following core of biology courses, some of which are prerequisites** or corequisites*** for upper-level biology courses (see course descriptions for prerequisites to individual courses).

BIOL 293Cell Biology +3
BIOL 303Genetics +3
STAT 130MElementary Statistics ++3
BIOL 405WBiology Seminar +++3
**

Prerequisite – designated course must be completed before enrolling in the course requiring the prerequisite.

***

 Corequisite – designated course may have been completed or taken during the same semester the student is enrolling in the course requiring the corequisite.

+

Have (Precalculus) and (Organic Chemistry) as pre- or corequisites.

++

Prerequisite for BIOL 303.

+++

Should be taken during the junior or senior year after completion of its prerequisites.

Core courses must be passed with a C (2.0 or better).

BIOL 291Ecology3
BIOL 292Evolution3
BIOL 293Cell Biology3
BIOL 303Genetics3
BIOL 405WBiology Seminar3
Total Hours15

Biology Electives. Students must choose 16 elective hours at the 300 level or above from the courses offered by the Department of Biological Sciences. A minimum of three of the courses must have a structured laboratory/field component [BIOL 368 (Internship) and BIOL 369 (Practicum) courses cannot be used to satisfy this requirement]. Students may use four credits at the 200 level to satisfy the elective requirement and may use no more than six credits of unstructured courses to satisfy the requirement (see below). Elective courses must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or better unless they are specified as Pass/Fail courses, in which case they must be passed (P).

Unstructured Courses. Students may take advantage of several non-classroom experiences ("Unstructured Courses") offered by the Department of Biological Sciences and may receive elective credit for these experiences. These include BIOL 368 (Internship), BIOL 369 (Practicum), BIOL 497 (Undergraduate Research) and BIOL 498 (Independent Study). See individual course descriptions and the chief departmental advisor for more information about these opportunities.

Non-biology degree requirements:

CHEM 121N
  & CHEM 122N
Foundations of Chemistry I Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHEM 123N
  & CHEM 124N
Foundations of Chemistry II Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHEM 211Organic Chemistry Lecture3
CHEM elective 200-level or higher5
MATH 200Calculus for Business and Economics3
STAT 130MElementary Statistics3
Total Hours22

Elective Credit

Elective credit will be needed to meet the minimum requirement of 120 credit hours for the degree.

Upper Division General Education

The Professional Education core satisfies this requirement for the secondary education concentration.

  • Option A. Approved Disciplinary Minor (a minimum of 12 hours determined by the department), or second degree or second major.
  • Option B: Interdisciplinary Minor (specifically 12 hours, 3 of which may be in the major)
  • Option C. International Business and Regional Courses or an approved Certification Program such as teaching licensure
  • Option D. Two Upper-Division Courses from outside the College of Sciences and not required by the major (6 hours)

Requirements for graduation (non-teacher education tracks) include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 overall and in the major, 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours in upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University, completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, completion of Senior Assessment, and completion of the Biology Department Senior Assessment when offered.

Marine Biology Concentration

The marine biology concentration provides students with coursework, specialized advising, and practical experience in marine biology while ensuring a strong, balanced education in one of the traditional natural sciences in which students major. The concentration requires satisfactory completion of the general biology foundation courses (BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N and BIOL 123N, BIOL 124N) or equivalent and at least 15 semester credit hours in approved marine biology related courses at the advanced level (300 and 400 level, see marine biology concentration brochure), including two required courses: Marine Biology (BIOL 331) and Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (OEAS 306).  The mathematics requirement for the concentration is MATH 211 Calculus I, and the non-biology physical science requirements are OEAS 111N Physical Geology and PHYS 111N Introductory General Physics. Students in the program are expected to participate in non-credit, monthly meetings of the ODU Marine Biology Association. One course completed at an off-campus marine biology laboratory or study abroad program is strongly recommended, as is a research, practicum, or internship experience in marine biology. Other requirements are listed under the Bachelor of Science—Biology Major. Marine biology students may also select a minor in ocean and earth science.

A variety of facilities are available to students interested in the marine biology concentration. On-campus facilities include a modern marine wet laboratory along with biology faculty research laboratories specializing in marine: benthic ecology, animal biomechanics and physiology, marine fish biology and systematics, conservation biology, phytoplankton biology, coastal wetland plants, disease ecology, microbiology, and tropical ecology. Field studies and course-related trips to nearby marine habitats in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean are supported by departmental field vehicles and small vessels, as well as by the Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Department's 55-foot research vessel, the R/V Fay Slover. Research requiring SCUBA is supported by the ODU Academic Diving Program, a local chapter of the American Academy of Underwater Scientists. Off-campus access to marine laboratories on Virginia's Eastern Shore and the Florida Keys are available through collaborative agreements with other colleges and universities.

Bachelor of Science–Biology Major Secondary Education Concentration

This program leads to eligibility for teacher licensure in Virginia and is available only to individuals holding a baccalaureate degree or completing requirements for a Bachelor of Science degree in biology.

Biology Major with Teaching Licensure in Biology

Students pursuing a biology major with teaching licensure complete the following biology core sequence and 16 credit hours of electives at the 300-level or above, to include three lab courses.  Students may use four credits at the 200-level to meet their upper-division requirement.

BIOL 121N
  & BIOL 122N
General Biology I
   and General Biology I Lab
4
BIOL 123N
  & BIOL 124N
General Biology II
   and General Biology II Lab
4
BIOL 291Ecology3
BIOL 292Evolution3
BIOL 293Cell Biology3
BIOL 303Genetics3
BIOL 405WBiology Seminar3
Total Hours23

Electives must include one approved course each in botany, zoology, microbiology, and human anatomy and physiology (see chief departmental advisor for details).

Non-biology requirements are:

CHEM 121N
  & CHEM 122N
Foundations of Chemistry I Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHEM 123N
  & CHEM 124N
Foundations of Chemistry II Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHEM 211Organic Chemistry Lecture3
CHEM 212Organic Chemistry Laboratory2
OEAS 110NEarth Science4
or OEAS 111N Physical Geology
PHYS 111NIntroductory General Physics4
MATH 200Calculus for Business and Economics3
STAT 130MElementary Statistics3
Total Hours27

Admission

Students must first declare the biology teacher preparation track as their major with the biology departmental advisor. All students must apply for and be admitted into the approved biology teacher preparation program. Students must meet the required criteria for admission by passing the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments and earn the minimum required grade point averages (GPA).

Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments

Old Dominion University students seeking admission to an approved teacher education program must satisfy the Virginia Board of Education Required Assessment for Admission to an Approved Teacher Education Program. This requirement can be satisfied by meeting a passing score in one of the selected criteria below:

  1. Passing PRAXIS I composite score of 532 by December 31, 2013; or
  2. Passing PRAXIS Core Academic Skills Tests beginning January 1, 2014:
    Reading Score of 156, Writing Score of 162, and Mathematics Score of 150; or
  3. Approved substitute test scores:
    1. SAT score of 1000 with at least 450 verbal and 510 mathematics taken prior to April 1, 1995; or
    2. SAT score of 1100 with at least 530 verbal and 530 mathematics taken after April 1, 1995; or
    3. ACT composite score of 21 with ACT mathematics score of at least 21, and ACT English plus Reading score of at least 37, taken prior to April 1, 1995; or
    4. ACT composite score of 24 with ACT mathematics score of at least 22, and ACT English plus Reading score of at least 46, taken after April 1, 1995; or
    5. PRAXIS I Math test score of 178 by December 31, 2013 and a composite Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (hereafter referred to as the VCLA) score of 470; or
    6. PRAXIS Core Academic Skills Mathematics test score of 150 beginning January 1, 2014 and a VCLA score of 470; or
    7. SAT Mathematics test score of at least 510 taken prior to April 1, 1995 and a VCLA score of 470; or
    8. SAT Mathematics test score of at least 530 taken after April 1, 1995 and a composite VCLA score of 470; or
    9. ACT Mathematics test score of at least 21 taken prior to April 1, 1995 and a composite VCLA score of 470; or
    10. ACT Mathematics test score of at least 22 taken after April 1, 1995 and a composite VCLA score of 470.
      Note:  ACT scores taken prior to 1989 are not valid.

For the most current information on the prescribed Virginia Board of Education admission assessment, visit the Teacher Education Services website, http://www.odu.edu/tes and review the Teacher Education Handbook.

Required grade point averages (GPA)

  • A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required.
  • A major/content GPA of 2.75 is required - all biology courses must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or above and all other science content courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher.
  • A professional education GPA of 2.75 is required – all professional education courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher

Although students may enroll in a limited number of education courses, students must be admitted into the approved biology teacher preparation program prior to enrolling in any instructional strategies practicum education course. Students must also meet with an education advisor in the Office of Teacher Education Services.

Continuance

Students must maintain a cumulative GPA of 2.75, a major/content GPA of 2.75 and a professional education GPA of 2.75. Biology courses must be passed with a grade of C (2.0) or higher. The remaining courses required for the major and in the professional education core must be completed with a grade of C- or higher for continuance. A professional education GPA of 2.75 is required for continuance. Students must take and pass the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) and the PRAXIS II Biology Content examination prior to or while enrolled in the instructional strategies course. All assessments must be passed prior to the start of the Teacher Candidate Internship Orientation session.

Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments

Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) – a passing composite score of 470 is required on this reading and writing assessment

PRAXIS II Biology: Content Knowledge (test code: 0235 or 5235) – passing score of 155 is required

To review more information on the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments visit the Teacher Education Services website, www.odu.edu/tes.

Graduation

Requirements for graduation include completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, completion of the Biology and Senior Assessments, a minimum cumulative 2.75 GPA, in the major area, and in the professional education core, with no grade less than a C in the major and C- in the professional education core; successful completion of the Teacher Candidate Internship and a minimum of 125 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 32 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours in upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University. Note that a C (2.0) must be earned in all biology courses used to satisfy departmental requirements.

The Professional Education core courses and requirements are as follows:

Achieve overall 2.75 GPA
STEM 101Step 1 – Inquiry Approaches to Teaching STEM1
STEM 102Step 2 - Inquiry Based STEM Lesson Design1
STEM 201Knowing and Learning in STEM Education3
STEM 202Classroom Interactions in STEM Education3
STEM 401Project Based Instruction in STEM Education3
STEM 402Perspectives on STEM3
SCI 468Research Methods in Math and Sciences3
STEM 485Apprentice Teaching9
Total Hours26

Due to changing University requirements, national accreditation standards, and the Virginia Board of Education licensure regulations, the teacher preparation programs in the College of Sciences are under constant revision. Any changes resulting from these factors supersede the program requirements described in this Catalog. Students are encouraged to obtain current program information from their advisors and from the Teacher Education Services website at: www.odu.edu/tes.

Professional Concentration

Biology students seeking careers in medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, optometry or podiatry should request advisement from Dr. Ralph W. Stevens III, the departmental prehealth advisor, who is located in the Department of Biological Sciences.

Science courses required by all of the above professional programs are:

BIOL 121N
  & BIOL 122N
General Biology I
   and General Biology I Lab
4
BIOL 123N
  & BIOL 124N
General Biology II
   and General Biology II Lab
4
CHEM 121N
  & CHEM 122N
Foundations of Chemistry I Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHEM 123N
  & CHEM 124N
Foundations of Chemistry II Lecture
   and Foundations of Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHEM 211
  & CHEM 212
  & CHEM 213
Organic Chemistry Lecture
   and Organic Chemistry Laboratory
   and Organic Chemistry Lecture
8
PHYS 111N
  & PHYS 112N
Introductory General Physics
   and Introductory General Physics
8
or PHYS 231N
  & PHYS 232N
University Physics
   and University Physics
MATH 200Calculus for Business and Economics3
Total Hours35

Students should confer with their advisors to select the most appropriate math courses and additional science courses. The most frequently recommended biology courses are in the areas of human or vertebrate anatomy and physiology and those stressing the molecular and cellular levels of organization. However, students also are encouraged to explore other disciplines while they have the opportunity to develop a broader view of life processes and the human condition.

Minor in Biology

The minor in biology offers students additional support to their chosen majors, prepares students for post-baccalaureate professional or graduate programs, offers greater job opportunities to graduates, and/or provides recognition of study in this academic area. The minor requires the successful completion of a minimum of 12 credit hours of coursework (a maximum of three credits at the 200-level, selected from the Biology 200-level core courses, and a minimum of nine credits at the 300-400 level). Courses selected at the 300-400 level may not include BIOL 303 or unstructured coursework and may include only one course from the Biology core.  For completion of the minor, a student must have a C (2.0) or better in BIOL 121NBIOL 122NBIOL 123NBIOL 124N, and the 200-level course, if any, used to fulfill the requirements of the minor. The student must also have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2.0 in all courses designated for the minor and taken by the student exclusive of 100-level and prerequisite courses and complete a minimum of six hours of upper-level work through courses offered at Old Dominion University.

Honors Program in Biology

A. Honors Research

Undergraduates with junior or senior standing and a GPA of 3.00 or better are eligible to participate in Honors Research. After consultation with the program director (Dr. Deborah A. Waller), students select a professor who agrees to oversee the research project. Students then enroll in two 4-credit courses, BIOL 487 and  BIOL 488W. The courses may be taken in any sequence: fall-spring, spring-summer, summer-summer, summer-fall. Normally both semesters are required but a student may receive credit for only one semester. The research project, time commitment by the student and the basis for the grade are mutually determined by the student and professor. Because first-semester research results are often preliminary, the grade for BIOL 487 is based on a review paper and/or research proposal, which provides the student with an overview of the field. The second semester is graded on the final research paper and a seminar presented to the honors committee and interested faculty. Professors should encourage students to publish results and present papers at scientific meetings when appropriate. Students should also be urged to apply for funds from agencies that provide seed money to undergraduates. The program director can provide information on scientific societies that sponsor meetings and/or offer small grants. Successful completion of both courses with a C (2.0) or better will allow the student to use  BIOL 488W as a lab course in meeting his/her requirements.

B. Bachelor's Degree with Honors in Biological Sciences and Honors Designation for Biology courses

Students maintaining an overall GPA of at least 3.25 and of 3.50 in biology can receive a "Bachelor's Degree with Honors in Biological Sciences" subject to satisfaction of the minimum University standards for the Honors degree and completion of one of the following two options:

Option 1: Successful completion of two semesters of biological research taken as BIOL 487 / BIOL 488W (Honors Research).

Option 2: Successful completion of three upper-division courses in Biological Sciences and achievement of the "Honors" designation in each.

Students petitioning for designation of an upper-division biology course as "Honors" must have a minimum overall GPA of 3.25 and a GPA of at least 3.50 in biology.

To receive the "Honors" designation for a course, students must achieve a final course score of at least 95% or the equivalent of an "A" on the University grade scale.

Faculty are encouraged to assign and work with students on other activities deemed appropriate for an "Honors" course designation and utilize the results of these activities in the assignment of a course grade.

Advanced Placement

Students may receive advanced placement (AP) credit for BIOL 121NBIOL 122N or BIOL 123NBIOL 124N (4 credits) by a score of 3 on the advanced placement examination. Students receiving a score of 4 or 5 will receive credit for both BIOL 121NBIOL 122N and BIOL 123N & BIOL 124N (8 credits). Official AP score reports should be sent to the Office of Admissions prior to registration for evaluation.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Courses

BIOL 103. Basic Bacteriology. 4 Credits.

A course designed to acquaint the student with the elementary principles of bacteriology and other disease causing microorganisms. Emphasis is placed on microorganisms as etiological agents in disease, on practical methods of disinfection, and on the factors of infection and immunity.

BIOL 105N. Biology for Nonscience Majors I. 4 Credits.

An introductory biology course for nonbiology majors. This course concentrates on major biological concepts concerning molecular biology, cellular biology, cellular reproduction, classical and molecular genetics, energetics, and ecology. This course would be beneficial to those students who are pursuing elementary education degrees because the course teaches biological topics included in the Virginia Standards of Learning. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 121N and BIOL 122N or BIOL 123N and BIOL 124N.

BIOL 106N. Biology for Nonscience Majors II. 4 Credits.

An introductory biology course for nonbiology majors. This course concentrates on plants and animals at the organismal level by examining major biological concepts involving diversity, ecology, behavior, and evolution. This course would be beneficial to those students who are pursuing elementary education degrees because it teaches biological topics included in the Virginia Standards of Learning. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 121N and 122N or for BIOL 123N and BIOL 124N.

BIOL 110N. Environmental Sciences. 3 Credits.

An introductory, non-sequential course for nonbiology majors focusing on scientific inquiry and the fundamental biological underpinnings of environmental science. The course concentrates on ecology, evolution, the nature of and threats to biodiversity, and conservation solutions. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 121N or BIOL 123N. BIOL 110N + BIOL 111N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Corequisite: BIOL 111N.

BIOL 111N. Environmental Sciences Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory activities and scientific experiments that enhance understanding of environmental science through a hands-on approach that cannot be provided in the lecture classroom setting. BIOL 110N + BIOL 111N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 122N or BIOL 124N. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 110N.

BIOL 112N. Environment and Man. 3 Credits.

An introductory, non-sequential course for nonbiology majors focusing on the most serious environmental problems our society is facing today and how these problems can be solved. The course concentrates on the science behind natural resources and resource management, toxicology, environmental policies and ethics, and sustainable living. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 121N or BIOL 123N. BIOL 112N and BIOL 113N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 113N.

BIOL 113N. Environment and Man Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Laboratory activities and experiments that enhance understanding of the scientific method and environmental sciences through a hands-on approach that cannot be provided in the lecture classroom setting. This course cannot be substituted for BIOL 122N or BIOL 124N. BIOL 112N + BIOL 113N satisfy four credits of the University's Nature of Science general education requirement. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 112N.

BIOL 117N. Introduction to Human Biology. 3 Credits.

An introductory lecture course for non-majors focusing on scientific inquiry and the structure and function of the human body with units on diet, nutrition, exercise, infectious disease, and cancer. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 121N or BIOL 123N.

BIOL 118N. Introduction to Human Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

An introductory lab course for non-majors focusing on scientific inquiry and the structure and function of the human body with units on diet, nutrition, exercise, infectious disease, and cancer. Cannot be substituted for BIOL 122N or BIOL 124N.

BIOL 121N. General Biology I. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. A student receiving credit for BIOL 121N or BIOL 123N cannot receive credit for BIOL 110N or BIOL 117N, respectively. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher.

BIOL 122N. General Biology I Lab. 1 Credit.

A lab course emphasizing the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher.

BIOL 123N. General Biology II. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. A student receiving credit for BIOL 121N or BIOL 123N cannot receive credit for BIOL 110N or BIOL 117N, respectively. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher, and BIOL 121N.

BIOL 124N. General Biology II Lab. 1 Credit.

A lab course emphasizing the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. A student receiving credit for BIOL 122N or BIOL 124N cannot receive credit for BIOL 111N or BIOL 118N, respectively. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher, and BIOL 121N.

BIOL 136N. Honors General Biology I. 3 Credits.

This course is available only to students in the Honors College. An introduction to the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. A student receiving credit for BIOL 136N or BIOL 138N cannot receive credit for BIOL 110N or BIOL 117N, respectively. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher, and enrollment in the Honors College.

BIOL 137N. Honors General Biology I Lab. 1 Credit.

This lab course is available only to students in the Honors College. This lab course emphasizes the process of science, biological molecules, cell biology, metabolism, molecular biology, and Mendelian genetics. A student receiving credit for BIOL 137N or BIOL 139N cannot receive credit for BIOL 111N or BIOL 118N, respectively. Prerequisites: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher, and enrollment in the Honors College.

BIOL 138N. Honors General Biology II. 3 Credits.

This course is available only to students in the Honors College. An introduction to the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. A student receiving credit for BIOL 136N or BIOL 138N cannot receive credit for BIOL 110N or BIOL 117N, respectively. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher, enrollment in the Honors College, and BIOL 136N.

BIOL 139N. Honors General Biology II Lab. 1 Credit.

This lab course is available only to students in the Honors College. This lab course emphasizes the process of science, evolutionary biology, ecology, and the basic biology of viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. A student receiving credit for BIOL 137N or BIOL 139N cannot receive credit for BIOL 111N or BIOL 118N, respectively. Prerequisite: Placement into ENGL 110C and qualifying Math SAT/ACT score, or qualifying score on the Math placement test, or completion of MATH 102M or higher, enrollment in the Honors College, and BIOL 136N.

BIOL 195. Biology Lab Topics. 1-3 Credits.

Laboratory topics.

BIOL 196. Topics. 1-3 Credits.

Topics in Biology.

BIOL 250. Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 4 Credits.

This course emphasizes the gross anatomical relationships and the molecular, cellular, physiological, and metabolic process of the integument, musculoskeletal, neural, and immune systems. Only one semester from BIOL 250-BIOL 251 (4 credits) may count toward upper-division elective requirements.

BIOL 251. Human Anatomy and Physiology II. 4 Credits.

This course emphasizes the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiac, pulmonary, renal, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Only one semester of BIOL 250-BIOL 251 (4 credits) may count toward upper-division elective requirements for the Biology major. Prerequisites: BIOL 250.

BIOL 291. Ecology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the basic concepts of ecology for both biology majors and nonmajors. The concepts are introduced with respect to terrestrial, aquatic, and marine environments. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 292. Evolution. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the basic concepts of evolution for both biology majors and nonmajors. The concepts are introduced with respect to terrestrial, aquatic, and marine environments. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 293. Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

A comprehensive course in the structural and functional features of cells, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The course will also examine biomacromolecules, techniques in cell and molecular biology, and current frontiers in cell biology research. Prerequisites: BIOL 115N and BIOL 116N. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 162M and CHEM 211.

BIOL 303. Genetics. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the principles of biological inheritance and variation and the molecular basis of gene structure and function. Prerequisites: BIOL 115N, BIOL 116N and STAT 130M. Pre- or corequisites: MATH 162M and CHEM 211.

BIOL 307. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Credits.

An examination of the invertebrate phyla with emphasis on classification, morphology, phylogeny, and general biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 308. Botany. 4 Credits.

A general introduction to the structure, function, ecology, and diversity of plants. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 314. Developmental Biology. 5 Credits.

An analysis of development in animals. Lectures will explore experimental approaches to the study of gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage and morphogenesis. Laboratory emphasizes the morphological features of the developing vertebrate embryo. Prerequisites: BIOL 250 and BIOL 251 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 211.

BIOL 315. General Microbiology. 5 Credits.

Designed to be a general survey of the nature and diversity of microorganisms (especially the bacteria but also including viruses and fungi), the roles and functions of the microorganisms, and basic microbiological research. Laboratories emphasize fundamental techniques in culturing, studying and identifying microorganisms. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 322. Ethnobotany. 3 Credits.

A survey of plants used for food, fiber, medicine, dyes, perfumes, oils, and waxes. The role of plants in folklore and religion is included. A student research project with a written paper and presentation is required. Prerequisites: BIOL 292 AND BIOL 308 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 331. Marine Biology. 3 Credits.

A survey of the variety, ecology and adaptations of marine organisms. The course is designed to broadly introduce students to life in the oceans and the many special features of marine species that have evolved in the earth's oldest and most extensive ecosystem. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, BIOL 124N, and BIOL 291 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 334. Field Ethnobotany. 4 Credits.

Identification, ecology, and uses of native plants and mushrooms. Most classes are field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N.

BIOL 335. Ecology Laboratory. 2 Credits.

A field and laboratory course that emphasizes techniques employed in ecological investigations. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 340. Field Botany. 4 Credits.

A survey of plants and plant communities of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Skills in plant and mushroom identification, specimen preparation, and research databases are emphasized. Most classes are field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 115N, BIOL 116N, and BIOL 291.

BIOL 346. Plant Geography. 3 Credits.

The distribution and characteristics of major plant community types in North America are discussed. Abundant pictures are used to illustrate the flora and plant communities. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 350. Phage Discovery and Genomics I. 3 Credits.

This course is the first semester of a two-semester laboratory and scientific writing course designed to provide a unique undergraduate research experience. The first semester course focuses on the discovery of viruses (also known as bacteriophage or phage) that infect bacteria with an emphasis on laboratory techniques. Students will collect phage from environmental samples and learn the laboratory techniques required for the isolation, purification and propagation of viruses. Students will further characterize phage based on microscopy, molecular microbiology techniques, and nucleic acid sequencing. This course emphasizes independent research and additional time outside of the laboratory will be required for sample collection and analysis. This course also is designed to complement the MonarchTeach curriculum. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303 and permission of the instructor.

BIOL 367. Cooperative Education. 1-3 Credits.

Student participation for credit in a paid work environment based on the academic relevance of the work experience as determined by the department and the Cooperative Education program, prior to the semester in which the work experience is to take place. Unstructured course. Students must identify a full-time biology faculty member with the expertise to determine if the cooperative education experience is appropriate for a biology curriculum, approve the learning contract, review the submitted assignments (student report and supervisor’s evaluation) and assign a P/F grade. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: approval by the department chair and Cooperative Education/Career Management.

BIOL 368. Internship. 1-3 Credits.

Supervised participation in non-research professional setting. Requires a minimum of 3 hours per week or equivalent for 1 credit, completion of work report and other documents relevant to the work experience, and supervisor evaluation. Unstructured course. Students must identify a full-time biology faculty member with the expertise to determine if the internship is appropriate for a biology curriculum, approve the learning contract, review the submitted assignments (student report and supervisor’s evaluation) and assign a P/F grade. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N must be passed with a grade of C or higher, junior standing, and the approval of a full-time biology faculty member.

BIOL 369. Practicum. 1-3 Credits.

A supervised experience in a research, teaching, or a work/field setting and culminating in the preparation of a written document relevant to the practicum experience. Unstructured course. Students must identify a full-time biology faculty member with the expertise to determine if the practicum is appropriate for a biology curriculum, approve the learning contract, review the submitted assignments (student report and supervisor’s evaluation) and assign a P/F grade. (Qualifies as a CAP experience.) Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N must be passed with a grade of C or higher, acceptance as a declared major, junior class status, and approval by the sponsoring full-time biology faculty member and the practicum coordinator.

BIOL 395. Topics. 1-3 Credits.

A structured specialty course designed to meet the needs of students in biology. Students are expected to perform at the level of other junior level classes. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 400/500. Flowering Plant Families. 5 Credits.

An evolutionary survey of vascular plant families; emphasis on recognition and identification of plant families and the principles and methodologies that define them. A field intensive hands-on course. Prerequisites: BIOL 292 and BIOL 308 with a C or better.

BIOL 401/501. Entomology. 4 Credits.

A comprehensive survey of the insects, including taxonomy, morphology, physiology, reproductive and developmental biology, and ecology. Research techniques in entomology will be learned through both field and laboratory work. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 403/503. Medical Microbiology. 3 Credits.

This course integrates the disciplines of microbiology, immunology, and biochemistry with the pathophysiology of infections and the appropriate pharmacology in a problem-based learning setting. Students will learn the fundamental concepts and terminologies of infectious diseases. The material will be case studies in small group tutorials and emphasize independent learning. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N and BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N and BIOL 124N, BIOL 250, BIOL 315, and CHEM 441 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or instructor approval.

BIOL 404/504. Conservation Biology. 5 Credits.

The application of fundamental biological principles to the preservation of biodiversity, including the role of ecological and evolutionary theory to the preservation of biotas on a regional and global basis. Lectures will cover modern approaches to conservation biology, including conservation ethics and management issues. Laboratories will include discussion of case studies, introduction to software applicable to conservation biology, presentations by regional conservation practitioners, and visits to relevant field sites. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and junior standing or permission of instructor.

BIOL 405W. Biology Seminar. 3 Credits.

This course offers a capstone experience in scientific writing, faculty-mentored library research, the review and synthesis of material from the primary technical literature, and oral presentation. Students will develop a deeper understanding of the purposes and types of scientific writing, the structure and interpretation of technical papers, and the oral and written communication skills appropriate to the discipline. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: BIOL 291, BIOL 292, BIOL 293, and BIOL 303 and two 300- or 400-level elective courses, a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, and CS 120G or CS 121G or CS 126G or HLTH 120G or IT 150G or STEM 251G.

BIOL 408/508. Introduction to Pharmacology. 4 Credits.

This is a general introductory course in pharmacology dealing with chemistry, general properties and pharmacological effects on various physiological systems, therapeutic usefulness and toxicities of drugs. The course is designed to prepare upper-level undergraduate and graduate students for more advanced courses in pharmacology. Prerequisites: BIOL 250, BIOL 293, and BIOL 303 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 409/509. Immunology. 3 Credits.

A comprehensive study of the phenomena of immune resistance, the cells and tissues involved in immune responses, and the consequences of immunization. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 412/512. Plant Physiology. 4 Credits.

A study of the physiological processes occurring in plants. A laboratory and greenhouse oriented course stressing plant nutrients, cell metabolism-respiration, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, and plant hormones. Prerequisites: BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 293 and CHEM 211.

BIOL 415/515. Marine Ecology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to ecological processes in the marine environment with an emphasis on coastal ecosystems. The course covers synthetic topics as well as the ecology of specific marine habitats. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 331 must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Pre- or corequisite: When offered during the fall semester, BIOL 442 is a corequisite.

BIOL 416/516. Clinical Immunology. 3 Credits.

A description of common immunological problems seen in the clinic. Prerequisites: BIOL 409 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 419/519. Wetland Plants. 5 Credits.

A field-oriented course emphasizing the identification and ecology of aquatic and wetland plants with emphasis on plants used to delineate wetlands following federal guidelines. Activities include the use of identification databases, apps, and traditional floras and monographs. A research project including a written paper and presentation is required. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 308 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 420/520. Ichthyology. 5 Credits.

The biology of marine and freshwater fishes including morphology, physiology, evolution, distribution, ecology, and reproduction. Prerequisites: BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and junior standing.

BIOL 422/522. Field Studies in Ornithology. 4 Credits.

A combined lecture and field study of birds with emphasis on identification, behavior, and field methods. Extensive field trips, including at least one weekend, are taken. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 423/523. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Credits.

The molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is presented along with cell evolution, molecular genetics, the internal organization of the cell and the behavior of cells in multicellular organisms. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303.

BIOL 424/524. Comparative Animal Physiology. 5 Credits.

An introduction to the basic mechanisms by which different animals function. How organisms acquire and use energy, regulate their internal environment, circulate and exchange gases and wastes, receive and conduct information about their environment, and move and use muscles will be some of the topics covered. Emphasis will be on how organisms make changes in these basic mechanisms to deal with different environmental conditions. Prerequisites: BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 425/525. Cancer Biology. 3 Credits.

This course will examine how mutation leads to altered gene products and expression, subverted cell activity, cell immortalization, and tumor formation. Students will explore the differences between benign tumors and malignant tumors as well as the factors involved in malignancy. The course will conclude with the exploration of current cancer therapy. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 426/526. Histology. 5 Credits.

The structure and function of cells, tissues and organs at both the light microscopic and ultrastructural levels. Prerequisites: BIOL 250 and BIOL 293 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 430/530. Microbial Pathogenesis. 3 Credits.

Examination of bacterium-host interactions with an emphasis on how bacteria cause disease, particularly the means by which the bacterium is able to circumvent host defense mechanisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 315.

BIOL 435/535. Marine Conservation Biology. 3 Credits.

This highly interdisciplinary science of conserving marine biodiversity will be taught through a review of old and new literature. This will include its history, marine ecology related to conservation biology, threats to marine biodiversity, assessment of extinction risk, conservation challenges of marine habitats and regions, and methods for conserving marine biodiversity. Prerequisites: BIOL 331 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 436W/536. Infectious Disease Epidemiology. 3 Credits.

This lecture/lab course will focus on concepts related to the spread and control of infectious diseases. The lectures will focus on concepts while the labs will provide quantitative skills essential to the study of infectious diseases. This course is also a writing-intensive course. Prerequisites: BIOL 291, and BIOL 292, and BIOL 293, and BIOL 303, and MATH 200 or MATH 163 or MATH 211, and STAT 130M or STAT 310, and ENGL 231C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 211C; all must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher.

BIOL 438/538. Dendrology. 4 Credits.

The study of trees and shrubs, their identification, ecology, structure and anatomy, lore, and uses are emphasized in this field-oriented course. A research project including a written paper and presentation is required. Prerequisites: BIOL 308 or its equivalent must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 441/541. Animal Behavior. 5 Credits.

Animal behavior with special attention to its evolution and ecological significance. Field and laboratory activities will emphasize the observational and experimental techniques used to study behavior. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 442/542. Marine Ecology Laboratory. 2 Credits.

A laboratory/field course in which students gain practical experience with research techniques common to coastal marine ecology, and become familiar with the organisms and ecological conditions present in the various marine habitats visited by the class. A field trip of several days is required. Pre- or corequisite: When offered during the fall semester, BIOL 415 is a corequisite.

BIOL 444/544. Field Studies in Marine Biology. 5 Credits.

An intensive study abroad field course offered during the summer at a foreign marine laboratory where students will be engaged in lectures and field studies of coastal marine environments. Check with the Director of the Marine Biology Concentration Program for details. Prerequisite: BIOL 331 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 445/545. Community Ecology. 3 Credits.

The goal of this course is to introduce and evaluate both classical and emerging paradigms in community ecology. This will be achieved by examining those processes (biotic and abiotic) that structure ecological communities and by exposing students to quantitative and theoretical aspects of these paradigms. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 446/546. Comparative Biomechanics. 3 Credits.

The principles of fluid and solid mechanics will be applied to a variety of plant and animal systems to understand how organisms deal with the immediate physical world and its accompanying constraints. A diverse range of topics will be covered, including aerial flight in insects, wind resistance in trees, jet propulsion in squid, flow within blood vessels, forces on intertidal organisms, viscoelasticity in biological materials, and energy storage during terrestrial movement. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 must be passed with a grade of C or higher; PHYS 111N and PHYS 112N are recommended.

BIOL 450/550. Principles of Plant Ecology. 4 Credits.

This course emphasizes the general theoretical concepts in plant ecology with statistical methods. The structure, development, processes, and history of plant communities are studied. Laboratories involve extensive fieldwork. A weekend field trip is required. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 must be passed with a grade of C or higher and senior standing.

BIOL 453/553. Molecular Ecology. 4 Credits.

This course will explore the biology of organisms by using molecular (nucleic acid and/or protein) techniques and data. It covers a wide variety of subdisciplines within Biology, including genetics, physiology, ecology, and evolution. This course will explore basic theory in population genetics, ecology, and evolution and cover DNA, RNA, and Protein techniques and their application to biological research. Prerequisites: BIOL 291, BIOL 292, BIOL 293, AND BIOL 303 all must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 456/556. Population Genetics. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: BIOL 303. An introduction to the principles of population genetics that addresses topics such as inheritance, genetic variation, fitness, natural selection, mutation, genetic drift, gene expression, and single- and multi-locus models of different types of selection. Human disease is addressed. Students will write a mock-grant proposal. Prerequisite: BIOL 303.

BIOL 457/557. General Virology. 3 Credits.

A basic course covering the history of virology, viral taxonomy, genetics, and the molecular biology and host responses to the major mammalian virus groups. Examples of recent impacts of viruses on human health such as influenza pandemics will also be covered. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 460/560. Frontiers in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 1 Credit.

Review of the structure, synthesis and properties of key nano-materials and their impact on living systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 461/561. Human Cadaver Dissection. 4 Credits.

Students will dissect a human cadaver and learn all major structures. All exams will be practical tag-tests using human tissue. The major emphasis will be on head, neck, trunk, and joints with some clinical application to injuries and surgery. Prerequisites: BIOL 250 and BIOL 251, or their equivalent, must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 462/562. Microbial Genetics. 3 Credits.

This course will emphasize the fundamental concepts of microbial genetics including the study of gene structure, gene regulation, operons, DNA replication, RNA biology, protein synthesis, plasmid biology, mobile genetic elements, and recombinant DNA technology. Prerequisites: BIOL 315.

BIOL 463/563. Cell Signaling in Host Pathogen Interactions. 3 Credits.

This course will emphasize cell dynamics including host and pathogen induced cellular signaling, the regulation of actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, and the modulation of host transcription and translation by different pathogens. Prerequisite: BIOL 293.

BIOL 464/564. Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Plasmas. 3 Credits.

This course is cross listed between ECE and Biology. It is designed to be taken by senior undergraduate students and first year graduate students. The course contents are multidisciplinary, combining materials from engineering and the biological sciences. The course covers an introduction to the fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas, low temperature plasma sources, and cell biology. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the interaction of low temperature plasma with biological cells, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Potential applications in medicine such as wound healing, blood coagulation, sterilization, and the killing of various types of cancer cells will be covered. Prerequisites: Senior standing.

BIOL 474/574. Mushrooms. 4 Credits.

This field oriented course emphasizes the identification, classification, ecology, culture, and uses of mushrooms and other fleshy fungi. Prerequisites: BIOL 308 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 478/578. Microbial Ecology. 3 Credits.

Study of the interactions between microorganisms, particularly bacteria, and their environment. Emphasis is placed on nutrient cycling and the influence of microbes on global mineral dynamics. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the distribution and activity of microbes in their environments and the applications (biotechnology) of these interactions are studied. Prerequisites: BIOL 315 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 479/579. Microbial Ecology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

A laboratory for measurement of microbial numbers and activity in natural environments. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 478.

BIOL 480/580. Advanced Human Physiology Laboratory. 2 Credits.

A study of the cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous and digestive systems using mammals. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 250 and BIOL 251.

BIOL 481/581. Forensic and Medical Entomology. 5 Credits.

A comprehensive survey of insects important to legal and medical fields, including their biology, use in criminal investigations and roles as disease vectors. Laboratories will include exercises in both field and bench laboratory activities. Prerequisites: BIOL 291 and BIOL 292 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 482/582. Human and Veterinary Parasitology. 3 Credits.

The course will cover principles of parasitism, including biology, physiology, genetics, morphology, and phylogeny of the major parasitic groups. The course will concentrate on significant parasites of humans and animals of veterinary importance, and will discuss general parasite biology including life cycles, diagnosis, and treatment. Prerequisites: BIOL 293 and BIOL 303 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 487. Honors Research in Biology. 4 Credits.

Independent study and scheduled meetings with faculty advisor. Supervised independent study in an area of individual interest in biology. The work in this course results in the production of a thesis. (qualifies as a CAP experience) Prerequisites: admission to the Honors Program and senior standing.

BIOL 488W. Honors Research in Biology. 4 Credits.

Independent study and scheduled meetings with faculty advisor. Supervised independent study in an area of individual interest in biology. The work in this course results in the production of a thesis. (This is a writing intensive course.) (qualifies as a CAP experience) Prerequisites: BIOL 487, admission to the Honors Program, senior standing, and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C.

BIOL 490/590. Advanced Human Physiology. 4 Credits.

All major physiological systems will be examined with an emphasis on normal physiology. Some clinical applications will be discussed. Prerequisites: BIOL 250 and BIOL 251 must be passed with a grade of C or higher.

BIOL 496/596. Topics. 1-3 Credits.

A specially designed, structured course concerning specific topics in the biological, environmental, or allied health fields. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N, BIOL 122N, BIOL 123N, and BIOL 124N, junior standing, permission of instructor.

BIOL 497. Undergraduate Research. 1-3 Credits.

Prerequisites: BIOL 115N and BIOL 116N, junior standing, permission of instructor, permission of CDA. Student performs lab and/or field research under supervision of ODU faculty or other approved professional. Requires a minimum of 3 hours per week or equivalent for 1 credit, completion of lab/field notes and written report and evaluation by supervisor. May qualify as lab experience (see CDA). (qualifies as a CAP experience).

BIOL 498/598. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

This unstructured course is based on a supervised project (non-lab/non-field) selected to suit the needs of the individual student. Requires the completion of a formal scientific paper documented with the appropriate primary technical literature. Contact the Chief Departmental Advisor (CDA) for details. Prerequisites: BIOL 121N and BIOL 122N or BIOL 136N and BIOL 137N, BIOL 123N and BIOL 124N or BIOL 138N and BIOL 139N must be passed with a grade of "C" or higher; junior standing, permission of the supervising instructor, and permission of the Chief Departmental Advisor (CDA) are also required.