[ skip to content ]

Old Dominion University

2014-2015 Catalog

History

Austin Jersild, Chair

Bachelor of Arts–History Major

Robert Del Corso, Chief Departmental Advisor 683-3949

The Department of History offers a Bachelor of Arts degree that prepares students broadly for modern careers in business, government, and teaching, or for graduate study in history, law, library science, business, or education. The major requires 36 hours of course work. At least 12 hours of History at the 300 and 400 levels must be taken in residence at Old Dominion University.

The Department's academic offerings reflect the diversity of the faculty, and students are encouraged to sample broadly the course offerings.

The requirements are as follows:

Lower Division General Education

Written Communication *6
English Composition *
Oral Communication3
Mathematics3
Language and Culture **0-12
Information Literacy and Research ***
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Literature3
Philosophy and Ethics3
The Nature of Science8
Impact of Technology ****0-3
Human Behavior3
Total Hours35-50

 

*

Grade of C or better required in both courses and in ENGL 110C before declaring major.

**

Proficiency through 202 level:  proficiency is not met by completion of an associate degree.

***

Satisfied in the major by HIST 201.

****

May be met in the major by HIST 300T, HIST 304T, HIST 386T or HIST 389T.

Major Requirements

HIST 100-level electives6
Select two of the following in addition to the course selected to meet general education
Interpreting the World Past Since 1500
Interpreting the Asian Past
Interpreting the European Past
Interpreting the Latin America Past
Interpreting the American Past
Interpreting the African Past
HIST 201Introduction to Historical Methods +3
HIST 402WSenior Seminar in History ++3
HIST 300 and 400-level classes +++21
Field One: United States History
Field Two: European History
Field Three: Area Studies (Asia, Latin America, Middle East, Russia, Africa)
Field Four: Comparative History
Total Hours33

 

+

Meets information literacy and research requirement.

++

Grade of C or better required.

+++

With a minimum of one course from three of the four fields listed, one of which must be 400-level.

Elective Credit

Elective credit will be needed to meet the minimum requirement of 120 credit hours.

Upper Division General Education 

  • Option A. Approved Minor, 12-24 hours; also second degree or second major
  • Option B. Interdisciplinary Minor, 12 hours specified by the department, 3 of which may be in the major area of study
  • Option C. International business and regional courses or an approved certification program, such as teaching licensure
  • Option D. Two Upper-Division Courses from outside the College of Arts and Letters or from the Arts and Humanities Component within the College of Arts and Letters that are not required by the major (6 hours).

Requirements for graduation include a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 overall and in the major, 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours of upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University, completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better, and completion of Senior Assessment.

Bachelor of Arts–History Major with a License in History/Social Sciences

The Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Education cooperate in providing a Bachelor of Arts degree that licenses its recipient to teach on the secondary level in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Most other states honor this license. Students must achieve passing scores on the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments as a prerequisite for entry into the professional education core. They must also pass the Praxis II exam in order to be admitted to TLED 485 (Student Teaching) and to be licensed. For information on these standardized tests, students should consult with their education advisor. To gain admission to this program, students must have a cumulative grade point average of 2.75 and maintain this average to graduate. Students must also have and maintain a major/content grade point average of 2.75 with grades of C- or higher in all history/social sciences courses and a professional education grade point average of 2.75 with all grades C- or higher in all education courses. The history/social sciences content consists of history, political science, geography, and economics.

Entering students must declare their intention to take their degree in History and Social Sciences in the History Department, whereupon they will be assigned an advisor. Another advisor will be assigned in the College of Education. It is the responsibility of the student to see both advisors regularly.

The requirements are as follows:

Admission

All students must apply for and be admitted into the approved history and social science teacher preparation program. Students must meet the required criteria for admission by passing the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments and earn the minimum required grade point averages (GPA).

Prescribed Virginia Board of Education Assessment for Admission to an Approved Teacher Education Program

Old Dominion University students seeking admission to an approved teacher education program must satisfy the Virginia Board of Education Required Assessment for Admission to an Approved Teacher Education Program. This requirement can be satisfied by meeting a passing score in one of the selected criteria below:

  1. Passing PRAXIS I composite score of 532 by December 31, 2013; or
  2. Passing PRAXIS Core Academic Skills Tests beginning January 1, 2014:
    Reading Score of 156, Writing Score of 162, and Mathematics Score of 150; or
  3. Approved substitute test scores:
    1. SAT score of 1000 with at least 450 verbal and 510 mathematics taken prior to April 1, 1995; or
    2. SAT score of 1100 with at least 530 verbal and 530 mathematics taken after April 1, 1995; or
    3. ACT composite score of 21 with ACT mathematics score of at least 21, and ACT English plus Reading score of at least 37, taken prior to April 1, 1995; or
    4. ACT composite score of 24 with ACT mathematics score of at least 22, and ACT English plus Reading score of at least 46, taken after April 1, 1995; or
    5. PRAXIS I Math test score of 178 by December 31, 2013 and a composite Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (hereafter referred to as the VCLA) score of 470; or
    6. PRAXIS Core Academic Skills Mathematics test score of 150 beginning January 1, 2014 and a VCLA score of 470; or
    7. SAT Mathematics test score of at least 510 taken prior to April 1, 1995 and a VCLA score of 470; or
    8. SAT Mathematics test score of at least 530 taken after April 1, 1995 and a composite VCLA score of 470; or
    9. ACT Mathematics test score of at least 21 taken prior to April 1, 1995 and a composite VCLA score of 470; or
    10. ACT Mathematics test score of at least 22 taken after April 1, 1995 and a composite VCLA score of 470.
      Note:  ACT scores taken prior to 1989 are not valid.

For the most current information on the prescribed Virginia Board of Education admission assessment, visit the Teacher Education Services website, http://www.odu.edu/tes and review the Teacher Education Handbook.

Required grade point averages (GPA):

  • A cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required.
  • A major/content GPA of 2.75 is required – all history and social science courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher.
  • A professional education GPA of 2.75 is required – all professional education courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher.

Although students may enroll in a limited number of education courses, students must be admitted into the approved history and social science teacher preparation program prior to enrolling in any instructional strategies practicum education course. Students must also meet with an education advisor in the Office of Teacher Education Services. 

Continuance

Students must maintain a cumulative GPA of 2.75, a major/content GPA of 2.75 and a professional education GPA of 2.75. History and social science courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. The remaining courses required for the major and in the professional education core must be completed with a grade of C- or higher for continuance. A professional education GPA of 2.75 is required for continuance. Students must take and pass the Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) and the PRAXIS II Social Studies Content examination prior to or while enrolled in the instructional strategies course. All assessments must be passed prior to the start of the Teacher Candidate Internship Orientation session.

Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments:

  • Virginia Communication and Literacy Assessment (VCLA) – a passing composite score of 470 is required on this reading and writing assessment.
  • PRAXIS II Social Studies: Content Knowledge (test code 0081) – passing score of 161 is required

To review more information on the Virginia Board of Education prescribed assessments, visit the Teacher Education Services website, www.odu.edu/tes.

Graduation

Requirements for graduation include completion of ENGL 110C, ENGL 211C or 221C or 231C, and the writing intensive (W) course in the major with a grade of C or better; completion of the Senior Assessment; a minimum cumulative 2.75 GPA in the major area and in the professional education core with no grade less than a C- in the major/content and the professional education core; successful completion of the Teacher Candidate Internship, and a minimum of 120 credit hours, which must include both a minimum of 30 credit hours overall and 12 credit hours of upper-level courses in the major program from Old Dominion University.

Due to changing University requirements, national accreditation standards, and the Virginia Board of Education licensure regulations, the teacher education programs in the College of Arts and Letters are under constant revision. Any changes resulting from these factors supersede the program requirements described in this Catalog. Students are encouraged to obtain current program information from their advisors and from the Teacher Education Services website at www.odu.edu/tes.

Lower Division General Education

Written Communication *6
Oral Communication3
Mathematics3
Language and Culture **0-12
Information Literacy and Research ***
Human Creativity3
Interpreting the Past3
Select one of the following:
Interpreting the World Past Since 1500
Interpreting the Asian Past
Interpreting the Latin America Past
Interpreting the African Past
Literature ****3
Philosophy and Ethics *****3
The Nature of Science8
Impact of Technology ******
Human Behavior3
ECON 200SBasic Economics *******3-6
Principles of Macroeconomics
Principles of Microeconomics
Total Hours38-53
*

Grade of C or better required in both courses and  in ENGL 110C before declaring major.

**

Proficiency through 202 level; proficiency is not met by completion of an associate degree.

***

Satisfied by HIST 201.

****

 FLET 100L recommended

*****

PHIL 250E recommended.

******

 Satisfied by TLED 430.

*******

 ECON 200S is recommended; however, ECON 201S together with ECON 202S are acceptable. 

Major Requirements

SOC 201SIntroduction to Sociology3
or ANTR 110S Introduction to Anthropology
HIST 102HInterpreting the European Past3
HIST 104HInterpreting the American Past3
HIST 201Introduction to Historical Methods *3
HIST 356Virginia History3
HIST 402WSenior Seminar in History **3
HIST 300 and 400-level classes ***12
Field One: United States History
Field Two: European History
Field Three: Area Studies ****
Field Four: Comparative History *****
Total Hours30
*

Satisfies information literacy and research requirement.

**

Grade of C or better required.

***

 With a minimum of one class from three of the four fields listed, one of which must be 400-level.

****

Asia, Latin America, Middle East, Africa

*****

 History 302 recommended.

Professional Education Core

TLED 301Foundations and Introduction to Assessment of Education3
TLED 360Classroom Management and Discipline2
TLED 408Reading and Writing in Content Areas3
TLED 430PK-12 Instructional Technology *3
TLED 455Developing Instructional Strategies for Teaching in the Middle/High School: Social Studies3
TLED 483Seminar in Teacher Education1
TLED 485Teacher Candidate Internship12
SPED 313Fundamentals of Human Growth and Development: Birth through Adolescence3
SPED 406Students with Diverse Learning Needs in the General Education Classroom3
Total Hours33
*

Satisfies impact of technology requirement.

History and Social Sciences License Requirements

Geography courses: 9
Cultural Geography
Maps and Geographic Information
World Resources
Political Geography
Political Science courses: 9
Introduction to American Politics
State and Local Government
Electoral Politics
and select one of the following:
Race, Culture and Public Policy
Political Theory
American Political Thought
European Politics
Politics of Africa
International Political Economy
Russian Politics
Latin American Politics
Politics of East Asia
Technology and War
Congress
American Presidency
American Constitutional Law and Politics II
African American Politics
Women and Politics in America
Total Hours18

Upper Division General Education 

Students in the secondary education licensure program satisfy the Upper Division General Education requirement through their professional education courses.

Accelerated Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts–History

Students with exceptional academic skills can enter this program and count up to 12 credit hours of graduate history courses toward both an undergraduate and graduate degree, making it possible to earn both a B.A. and M.A. in history within five years.

Admission Requirements

To be admitted to the program, students must be a declared major in history, have completed a minimum of 60 undergraduate credit hours, including at least nine hours in history courses at the 300-level or above, and have a GPA of 3.30 or better overall and in history.

Admission Procedures

Students who meet the admission requirements should consult with the graduate program director no later than the spring or summer prior to their senior year to plan graduate courses to be taken as an undergraduate. During their senior year, students must file an application to the M.A. program in history with the Office of Admissions. This application includes an Old Dominion University graduate application, a 500-word personal statement, two letters of recommendation, and Graduate Record Examination scores. Graduate admission deadlines apply.

Once students have been awarded their B.A. degree and fulfilled all regular admission requirements for the M.A. in history, they will be officially admitted into the M.A. program.

Requirements for the Accelerated B.A./M.A. Program

Students in the program will fulfill all regular admission and curricular requirements for both the B.A. and M.A. in history, with the following exceptions:

  1. Upon completing 90 hours of undergraduate work and attaining senior status, admitted students may take up to 12 hours of graduate courses as an undergraduate, provided that those courses fulfill curricular requirements for both the B.A. and M.A. degrees in history.
  2. Students will need to complete the following major requirements for the B.A:
HIST 100-level elective: *9
Select two of the following:
Interpreting the World Past Since 1500
Interpreting the Asian Past
Interpreting the European Past
Interpreting the Latin America Past
Interpreting the American Past
Interpreting the African Past
HIST 201Introduction to Historical Methods **3
HIST 402WSenior Seminar in History3
HIST 300 and 400-level classes ***21
Field One: United States History
Field Two: European History
Field Three: Area Studies (Asia, Latin America, Middle East, Russia, Africa)
Field Four: Comparative History
Total Hours36

*

Including the three hours selected for the general education requirement.

**

Meets information literacy and research requirement.

***

A minimum of one class from three of the four fields listed, one of which must be 400-level

Up to 12 credits of graduate-level course work taken as an undergraduate during the senior year can substitute for 300- and 400-level requirements above and will be counted toward the B.A. degree in history. The following guidelines apply:

A. Any 500-level course that is cross listed with a 400-level course may be substituted for the 400-level course; however, the student cannot take a 500-level course which has already been taken at the 400 level. Only nine credits of 500-level course work will count toward the M.A. degree.

B. The following courses can be taken to fulfill the 300-400 level American elective requirement:

HIST 602Studies in American Colonial and Revolutionary History3
HIST 604Studies in American History, 1787-18773
HIST 608Studies in American History, 1933 to the Present3
HIST 612Studies in the History of the South3
HIST 616Studies in American Diplomatic History3
HIST 618Studies in American Social History3

C. The following courses can be taken to fulfill the 300-400 level European elective requirement:

HIST 633Studies in International History3
HIST 650Studies in Ancient History3
HIST 652Studies in Medieval History3
HIST 654Studies in European History from 1350-16003
HIST 656Studies in European History from 1600-18153
HIST 658Studies in European History from 1815-19143
HIST 660Studies in European History from 1914 to the Present (European topics )3

D. The following courses can be taken to fulfill the 300-400 level elective requirement in African, Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, or Russian history:

HIST 640Studies in East Asian History3
HIST 645Studies in Latin American History3
HIST 658Studies in European History from 1815-19143
HIST 660Studies in European History from 1914 to the Present3

3. All graduate courses taken as an undergraduate that are completed with a grade of B (3.0) or better will also count toward the 30-credit M.A. degree in history.

Students should consult the Graduate Catalog for information and requirements for the M.A. in history.

Minor in History

The history minor consists of 15 semester hours, of which at least 12 must be at the 300 level or above. At least six hours of upper-level courses must be taken through courses offered by Old Dominion University.

For completion of a minor a student must have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2.00 in all courses required for the minor exclusive of lower-level courses and prerequisite courses.

Advanced Placement

Students may earn advanced placement credit for HIST 102H or HIST 104H with a qualifying score on the American or European History Advanced Placement of the College Board exam or from a qualifying score on the CLEP exam. Consult the Testing Center for further information on advanced placement.

HISTORY Courses

HIST 100H. Interpreting the World Past Since 1500. 3 Credits.

The course offers students a critical approach to interpreting World history. A fast-paced survey of World history from 1500 to the present, it focuses on the major intellectual, religious, social, cultural, political, environmental and scientific developments that have influenced the course of World history. It looks at cross-cultural relations in the form of economic exchange, technology transfer, war and conquest, and international organizations.

HIST 101H. Interpreting the Asian Past. 3 Credits.

The course is a fast-paced survey of Asian civilization in a global context from the emergence of Indian and Chinese civilizations to the events unfolding today. It follows the courses of political, social, cultural, religious, and economic development in East, South, and Southease Asia.

HIST 102H. Interpreting the European Past. 3 Credits.

The course is a fast-paced survey of European civilization. It focuses on the major intellectual, religious, social, cultural, political, environmental, and scientific developments that have influenced the course of European history.

HIST 103H. Interpreting the Latin America Past. 3 Credits.

This fast-paced survey covers the last 600 years in the political, social, economic, and cultural histories of Latin America. Special attention will be paid to the global context of this multi-ethnic and multi-lingual region.

HIST 104H. Interpreting the American Past. 3 Credits.

This course offers students a critical approach to interpreting the history of the United States. A fast-paced survey of American history from the era of colonization to the present, it focuses on the major intellectual, religious, social, cultural, political, environmental, and scientific developments that have influenced the development of the United States.

HIST 105H. Interpreting the African Past. 3 Credits.

This course offers students a critical approach to interpreting the history of Africa. A fast-paced survey of African history, it affords students a grounding in the major themes of African history. The course focuses on the major economic, social, and political institutions of Africa, past and present, and explores how historical developments assist comprehension of present-day Africa.

HIST 126H. Honors: Interpreting the American Past. 3 Credits.

The course is open only to students in the Honors College. Special honors section of HIST 104H.

HIST 127H. Honors: Interpreting the European Past. 3 Credits.

The course is open only to students in the Honors College. Special honors section of HIST 102H.

HIST 201. Introduction to Historical Methods. 3 Credits.

Required of all history and secondary education social studies majors. Recommended prior to upper-division course work. Examines methods of historical research and primary and secondary source analysis, inclusive of internet usage. Explores historiography and historical writing. Introduces students to issues in the philosophy of history. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H.

HIST 300T. The History of Sex and Sexual and Reproductive Technologies. 3 Credits.

The course explores the many ways sex, gender, sexuality and sexual identities have been constructed in Western thought from 1250 to the present. The medicalization of sex and sexual practices will be examined. Sexual perversions such as prostitution, pornography, and sexual violence will be explored. The course will also focus on the technology of sexual enhancement and reproductive technologies and the ethics involved in these areas. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 302. Perspectives in Teaching World History to 1500. 3 Credits.

The course gives students a critical perspective on world civilizations from prehistory to 1500. It focuses on the major cultural, intellectual, scientific, geographic/environmental and religious developments of the world. The course emphasizes the critical assessment of primary documents and artifacts and the utilization of that material in the classroom. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 304T. History of Medicine, Disease, and Health Technology. 3 Credits.

Examines the history of medicine and epidemiology from ancient times through the twenty-first century. The course takes a comparative look at medical practices in Europe and around the globe and focuses heavily on the complex relationship between human societies and disease. The development of medical technologies and their impact are examined. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 305. Ancient Greece. 3 Credits.

The history of Greece from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic era. Special attention will be paid to the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, the Golden Age of Athens, and the life of Alexander the Great. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 306. Ancient Rome. 3 Credits.

The history of Rome from its foundation in 753 B.C. down to its fall in 476 A.D. Special attention will be placed on constitutional developments in the Republican period, the career of Augustus, and the strengths and failings of the Empire. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 307. The Early Middle Ages. 3 Credits.

Examines late Roman and barbarian Europe from the time of the Hunnic migrations through the Carolingian era. Primary emphasis will be on the social, cultural, economic, and political development of the various continental barbarian states. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 308. The High Middle Ages. 3 Credits.

This is a study of continental Medieval Europe from the later Carolingians through Dante. Primary emphasis will be placed on the social, cultural, economic, and religious aspects of medieval society. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 310. Renaissance Europe. 3 Credits.

This is an examination of the Renaissance in both Italy and Northern Europe from the 14th to the 16th centuries emphasizing the new learning, humanism and the place of the individual as well as the political and artistic new achievements of the age. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 311. Early Modern Europe. 3 Credits.

The course covers the period between the late Middle Ages and the beginning of the modern era, roughly 1350-1715, exploring the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Age of Exploration. There is emphasis on the culture of the period as contemporaries coped with depression, plague, religious change, and cultural encounters outside Europe. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 314T. Towers, Tanks and Time: Technology on the Eve of WWI. 3 Credits.

The course traces the intellectual, technical, mechanical, and scientific developments that had a profound effect on the ways in which Europeans and Americans saw and understood their world 1890-1914. Course readings and materials will reflect on the process and progress of technological change and the ways in which this manifested in literature, arts, politics, and culture. Prerequisites: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H OR HIST 127H.

HIST 316. Cold War in History. 3 Credits.

The course explores changes in the international system which arose in the wake of World War II and focuses on conflict and cooperation in selected regions of the developed and developing world. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H.

HIST 322. History of England Through the Seventeenth Century. 3 Credits.

This course explores the social and political history of early England, with an emphasis on the fall of the Romans, the Anglo-Saxon and Norman invasions, medieval social and cultural life, the evolution of feudal relationships, and the development of the English monarchy. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H.

HIST 323. History of Modern England. 3 Credits.

This course explores the development of Britain in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Key themes include the evolution of English democracy, the rise and decline of the British empire, Britain’s role in international affairs, and England’s tenuous relationship with Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H.

HIST 324. Europe in the Twentieth Century. 3 Credits.

This course explores the evolution and development of European states, institutions and cultures over the course of the twentieth century. Relations among European states--large and small--and their peoples are examined. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H (HIST 102H recommended).

HIST 327. Russia: Culture and Civilization. 3 Credits.

The course is a survey of Russian history from the ninth to the end of the nineteenth century stressing the distinctiveness of Russian culture and institutions, the influence of the West, the multi-national character of the Empire, and the decline of the old regime. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H.

HIST 328. USSR and Contemporary Russia. 3 Credits.

The course is a survey of the formation and development of the USSR in the twentieth century from the fall of the Russian monarchy and the revolutions of 1917 to the present. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 331. Colonialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia. 3 Credits.

The course is a study of Southeast Asia between 1750 and 1950. The focus will be on Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Burma, Malaysia and Thailand. Topics examined will include major theoretical frameworks used to understand colonialism and nationalism, the differential impact of colonial rule, and the impact of religions and 'western' ideologies on nationalist movements. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 332. South Asia Since Independence. 3 Credits.

This is a comparative study of the main political, economic and social developments in the major countries of South Asia. Themes will include democratization, problems of economic development, the role of caste and religion, the causes of intrastate conflict and interstate conflict and the influence of global forces on the region. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 336. The Emergence of New China. 3 Credits.

The course is the history of China covering late Imperial China, the impact of Western imperialism, the Republican Period, and the establishment of the People's Republic. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 338. Japan's Era of Transformation. 3 Credits.

This is the history of Japan since 1800. It covers the decline of the Tokugawa Shogunate, modern nation building in the Meiji period, domestic conflicts and war in the twentieth century, and the roots of Japan's economic prominence today. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 345. Native American History. 3 Credits.

The course examines the history and culture of Native American peoples from early contact with Europeans to present day. There is particular focus on ways that cultural interactions affected and transformed native peoples - their beliefs, societies, and political structures. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H.

HIST 346. Colonial and Revolutionary America. 3 Credits.

The course examines social, cultural, economic and political developments in North America from 1492 to the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. Course explores the role of class, gender, and race in the creation of an American culture. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 348. The Early Republic, 1787-1850. 3 Credits.

The course explores America's transformation from a republic to a democracy by examining the political, economic, social and intellectual history of the United States' first half century. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 349. American Naval History. 3 Credits.

This course examines American naval history and American naval theory from the colonial period to the present day. It analyzes the importance of American naval conflicts, developments in naval technology, and the social and political changes that shaped the U.S. Navy. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 350. History of the Old South. 3 Credits.

The course is a study of the Old South civilization from the colonial era to the Civil War, with particular emphasis on the frontier, slavery, the cotton kingdom, and southern cultural contributions. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 351. The Civil War and Reconstruction. 3 Credits.

The course is a study of the origins of the idea of secession and of the war, of the military, political, and economic contest between the Confederate and Federal governments, and finally of the long-range effects of the war as revealed in the failure of Reconstruction. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 352. The Immigrant Experience in U.S. History. 3 Credits.

This class examines the history of U.S. immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries. The course strives to complicate the "Melting Pot" metaphor in U.S. history by exploring the transnational quality of immigrants' lives, the way class, race, gender, and nationality have shaped the immigrant experience, and the role nation-states have played in managing immigration. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 353. Robber Barons, Reformers, and Radicals: The US Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 3 Credits.

This course covers the Gilded Age and Progressive Era of U.S. history (1870s-1920s), a dynamic period characterized by industrialization, imperialism, international and internal migration, World War I, and a variety of social and political movements. This course explores these and other topics from an international perspective to consider how global processes influenced the U.S., and how the U.S. influenced the rest of the world in the late 19th and early 20th century. Prerequisite: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 354. From the Jazz Age to the Atomic Age: US, 1920-1945. 3 Credits.

The course covers the domestic and international history of the U.S. during the Roaring Twenties, The Great Depression, World War II. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 355. The United States, 1945-1991. 3 Credits.

The course is the history of the United States from the end of World War II to the end of the Cold War. The course focuses on domestic politics, social change, economic developments and international relations. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 356. Virginia History. 3 Credits.

The course is an examination of Virginia's past from Jamestown to the present. The course emphasizes the colonial experience, Virginia's role in the new nation, the post-Civil War era and Virginia in the twentieth century. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 357. The United States in the 1960s. 3 Credits.

The course examines the political, social and cultural revolutions which occurred in the United States from 1960 to 1974. Topics include the reforms of JFK and LBJ; the rise of conservatism; the impact of the baby boom generation; the civil rights, anti-war, and women's movements; the war in Indochina; and Watergate and the fall of Richard Nixon. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 358. The U.S. in the Second World War. 3 Credits.

The course is designed to familiarize students with important concepts in the history of America's involvement in the Second World War. It surveys the significant events, personalities, and changes that occurred between 1941 and 1945, heavily focusing on America's three "fronts": the European, the Pacific and the home front. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 359. American Maritime History. 3 Credits.

The course explores the various maritime influences in American history. Topics discussed include ocean exploration, navies and maritime conflicts, shipping and shipbuilding, marine resource extraction, rivers and canal transportation, maritime migration, water use, and other issues in maritime history from exploration to the present. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 360. American Military History. 3 Credits.

The course is a study of American military policy, 1763 to the present, in relation to its political, economic, and social implications. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 361. African-American History to 1865. 3 Credits.

The course examines African-American history from the African background through the Civil War. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of African-Americans' role in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the United States. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 362. African-American History Since 1865. 3 Credits.

This course examines African-American history from Reconstruction to the present. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of African-Americans' role in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the United States. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 363. Women in U.S. History. 3 Credits.

The course examines the experiences of women in U.S. history from 1607 to the present, paying particular attention to influences of race, class, ethnicity and changing conceptions of gender. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 364. African American Genealogy. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to introduce students to the historical and methodological approaches to genealogical research, both traditional and scientific. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 368. Internship. 3 Credits.

The content varies according to the internship. Qualifies as a CAP experience. Prerequisites: Permission of the department and one or more Interpreting the Past courses.

HIST 369. Practicum. 3 Credits.

The content varies according to practicum. Qualifies as a CAP experience. Prerequisites: Permission of the department and one or more Interpreting the Past courses.

HIST 370. Africa in Global Commerce and Culture, from 800-1960. 3 Credits.

This course examines commercial and cultural developments in Africa in a world historical context, starting with the arrival of Islam towards the end of the first millennium and ending with European colonial rule. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 371. Modern Mexico. 3 Credits.

This survey of Mexico's history since independence highlights the social, cultural and economic changes that accompanied four turning points in the political history of Mexico: the independence movement, the wars of the reform, the Revolution of 1910, and the trend toward democratization that began in the 1980s. Attention will be paid to the changing scope of Mexico's relations with the United States, and to comparisons of Mexico's experience with that of other Latin American countries. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 372. Central America and the Caribbean Since 1800. 3 Credits.

This course surveys socio-economic and political change after about 1800 in the Caribbean Basin (Central America and the insular Caribbean), a region whose diverse colonial, ethnic, labor and migratory experiences will provide rich opportunities for comparative study. Plantation slavery and its legacies, independence movements, export-led economic growth, nationalism, social movements, revolution and great-power rivalries will be the major themes. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 373. U.S.-Latin American Relations. 3 Credits.

This survey of Latin America's relations with the United States since the early nineteenth century will seek to identify and account for changing patterns in what has been a highly asymmetrical power relationship. The emphasis will be on the outcomes of U.S. policy in the region, combining the study of broad trends (especially in economic and security policy since the 1890s) with a close analysis of three cases: Mexico, Cuba and Central America. The influence of the larger international environment on those relations will be considered. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 379. The Ottoman Empire. 3 Credits.

The course examines topically and chronologically the state, society and culture of the Ottoman Empire, which spread over Asia, Europe, and Africa from the 14th through the early 20th Century and ruled over religiously, ethnically, and linguistically diverse populations. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 380. Women and Gender in the Middle East. 3 Credits.

The course examines the history of women and gender relations in the early modern and modern Middle East. The course traces how changing conceptions of the family and gender roles have shaped women's lives. The course also deals with the impact of colonialism and nation-building on women as well as on ideas of femininity and masculinity in the modern Middle East. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 386T. The Evolution of Modern Science. 3 Credits.

The course traces the development of modern science from the ancient Greeks to the 21st Century. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 388T. Discovering Earth's History. 3 Credits.

Geology and paleontology as technological systems during the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century, including global & local exploration, competing interpretations of empirical data, and the discovery that the earth itself had a history whose sources were inscribed in the very ground on which they walked. Readings include Darwin, Lyell, Humboldt, and others. Prerequisites: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, or HIST 105H.

HIST 389T. Technology and Civilization. 3 Credits.

This course examines the role of technology and relevant science. Students examine the interaction between society and technology and investigate why technology is both a reflection of, and a shaping influence upon, "modern" culture and beyond. Prerequisites: Three hours of history.

HIST 391. Paris/Auschwitz Study Abroad. 3 Credits.

This course explores the history of the Holocaust in France and Poland by taking students to key sites tied to the Holocaust in Europe. Students visit Paris and explore the history of pre-war Jewry and sites of deportation. Students travel to Poland and juxtapose the French and Polish experience and denial of the Holocaust. Public history in the museum setting is explored. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 392. The Holocaust and Vichy France. 3 Credits.

This course surveys French history during World War II, focusing on the fall of France, the German occupation, and the establishment of the Vichy collaborationist government. It explores the fate of French and foreign-born Jews under Vichy, deportation and resistance, and the issues of post-war memory and denial. Prerequisites: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 393. Studies in Jewish History. 3 Credits.

This course examines specific topics, eras, and themes of Jewish history. Specific titles will be listed in the on-line course schedule. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 396. Topics in History. 1-3 Credits.

The course is a study of selected topics. These courses are open to both majors and nonmajors. History majors may take these courses to satisfy history concentration requirements. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 402W. Senior Seminar in History. 3 Credits.

The course is an advanced study of selected topics leading to production of a research paper. It is required of all history and secondary education social studies majors. (This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: HIST 201 and a grade of C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C.

HIST 408/508. War and American Society in the Twentieth Century. 3 Credits.

The course is an exploration of the content and meaning of wartime experiences within American society between 1898 and 1975. Emphasis is on comparing the levels of national, institutional and personal experiences of war as they affected people at home and in battle, and on considering the relationships between warmaking and social development at particular times. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 409/509. History of US-Mexico Borderlands. 3 Credits.

The course examines the history of the region straddling the U.S. - Mexico border from the Spanish Conquest to the present day, focusing on issues of immigration, economic and political integration and the complicated nature of state-building in a transnational environment. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 411. Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. 3 Credits.

The course examines the status and relations of the three major religious communities in the Islamic Ottoman Empire in the early modern and modern periods. The course addresses questions such as: Did coexistence or conflict mark the encounters between Muslims, Christians, and Jews? What was the legal status of non-Muslims? How did the Ottoman Empire deal with nationalism? Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 412. From Empire to Nation: Nation-Building in the Balkans and the Middle East. 3 Credits.

The course traces the last turbulent century of the Ottoman Empire and its disintegration into nation-states in the Middle East and the Balkans up until the mid-20th Century. The course examines how the new states employed nationalsim and modernization to build state, society and national culture. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 414. Freedom, Rights and Revolution: Evolution of the State System 1648-1815. 3 Credits.

The course examines the social, cultural, political, legal and diplomatic history of Old Regime Europe, the rise of the territorial state, and challenges to its authority. In addition to events and sources contemporary to that age, students will be introduced to the most important interpretive theories that have emerged in the past generation on the Continent as well as in Britain and America. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 415. Empire, Nations, and Industrialization: Evolution of the State System, 1815-1914. 3 Credits.

The course focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy, and social, cultural and economic structures in the development of empires, nations and industrialization in the evolution of the modern state system from 1815 to 1914. Explores the relationship among European powers and their relations with smaller states in Europe and spheres of influence throughout the world. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 416. States, Territories and International Organization: Evolution of the State System Since 1914. 3 Credits.

The course focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy and social, cultural and economic structures in states territories, and international organizations since 1914. Emphasis on shifting European alingments since 1914, the two World Wars, the development of the bi-polar world and the development and evolution of international organizations. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 420/520. Fascism in Europe. 3 Credits.

The course explores the genesis and development of fascism in Europe between World Wars I and II. Particular emphasis on Fascism in Italy and National Socialism in Germany. Appeal of fascist movements to populations across the socio-economic spectrum, fluidities of ideology and practice, fascism's impact on political, economic, social, and cultural life in the interwar period are explored. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 439/539. Politics and Society in East Asia Since 1945. 3 Credits.

The course explores the political and social developments in Japan, China, and Korea since the end of World War II. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 447. U.S. Foreign Relations, 1776-1914. 3 Credits.

The course explores the foreign relations of the United States from the revolutionary period to 1914 with particular emphasis on the ideological and domestic roots of American foreign policy. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 448. U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1914. 3 Credits.

The course explores the foreign relations of the United States from the First World War to the present, with particular emphasis on the ideological and domestic roots of American foreign policy. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 450. American Revolution and Historical Memory. 3 Credits.

This seminar style course will introduce the principal writings and interpretations of the era of the American Revolution from the mid-eighteenth century to the ratification of the federal constitution of 1787. Besides exploring the relationship between the British Empire and its colonies, the course will look at the role of historical memory in understanding of the past. Prerequisites: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 451. The Atlantic World and Early America. 3 Credits.

During the early modern period, global processes of imperial, economic, and demographic expansion drew British North America into transnational networks that spanned the Atlantic Ocean and brought Europeans, Africans, and Americans together. This course will explore the Atlantic World as a place, a process, and a new field of historical inquiry. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 455/555. African-American Historiography. 3 Credits.

The course is an examination of the ways historians have addressed specific issues in African-American history. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 456/556. Research in Local History. 3 Credits.

The course explores the history of Hampton Roads through student use of research materials. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 470/570. Democracy and Development in Modern Latin America. 3 Credits.

This course analyzes, from a historical perspective, two core problems in Latin America's modern (since c. 1880) history: political authoritarianism and economic underdevelopment. The temporal and spatial dimensions of change are highlighted in discussions of patron-client political systems, military autonomy and impunity, social movements and revolution, export-oriented economic growth, industrialization, and the roles of national, ethnic and gender identities. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 475/575. History of Modern Africa. 3 Credits.

The course is designed to enrich students' understanding of the intersections of political, economic, social and cultural forces that shaped Africa in the last 150 years and continue to affect the lives of peoples throughout the continent. It will focus on a series of major historical transitions that have shaped the development of modern Africa, including the end of the Atlantic slave trade, European imperial conquest and colonial rule, African resistance to European rule, social and cultural transformations, the end of colonial rule and post-colonial challenges. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 477. Africa and the West from the Era of the Slave Trade through Modern Times. 3 Credits.

This course analyzes African perceptions of the West from the moment the continent was connected with the Atlantic world in the era of the slave trade, through the colonial period, to the late twentieth century. The course specifically looks at how Africans have dealt intellectually with large historical processes such as Atlantic commerce, Christianity, and colonialism. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 480W. Senior Seminar in International Studies. 3 Credits.

This writing-intensive course for advanced undergraduates explores the international dimensions of historical problems selected by the instructor. It fulfills the Senior Seminar requirement for International Studies majors, who are expected to have senior standing.(This is a writing intensive course.) Prerequisites: A grade or C or better in ENGL 211C or ENGL 221C or ENGL 231C, senior standing in the BAIS degree program or permission of the instructor and the director of the BAIS program.

HIST 481. Museums and Museology. 3 Credits.

The course examines the history of the public museum. It introduces museology, the profession of museum organization and management, focusing on design, outreach, artifact acquisition and preservation, and international museum standards. Museums as sites of historical research and teaching will receive special attention. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 493. Holocaust and Film: Representing the Unimaginable in the Visual Turn. 3 Credits.

The course explores the history of the Holocaust through the medium of film as document, testimony, propaganda, artifact, artistic representation and projection of collective memory. Special attention is given to considering the medium of film from the viewpoint of the historian. Prerequisite: HIST 100H, HIST 101H, HIST 102H, HIST 103H, HIST 104H, HIST 105H, HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 495/595. Topics in History. 1-3 Credits.

The course is an advanced study of selected topics designed for small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which may not be offered regularly. These courses appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors. Prerequisites: HIST 100H or HIST 101H or HIST 102H or HIST 103H or HIST 104H or HIST 105H or HIST 126H or HIST 127H.

HIST 497/597. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in History. 3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: Senior standing and approval of the department chair.

HIST 498/598. Tutorial Work in Special Topics in History. 3 Credits.

Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate. Prerequisites: Senior standing and approval of the department chair.